Nutrition Knowledge Survey Summary Assignment Instructions


Food is our primary source of energy and nutrients for growth and maintenance of the body. It is the fuel we need for work, play, and exercise; what we eat can impact our endurance during athletic events. However, many athletes though they have a strong drive for exercise and competition, don’t see this connection or know what foods they should be eating. Others, knowing that certain nutrients can impact outcomes, take supplements to improve their performance.


Dunford M, Doyle JA. Nutrition for Sport and Exercis e. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage; 2019


Review and analyze all of the interview data posted by the entire class in Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Write a report that summarizes your findings. Be sure to consider/address all of the questions asked in the original survey. Use the two headings Summary and Interpretation to indicate how much knowledge athletes have about nutrition. You must include at least two peer reviewed sources in this written portion of this assignment. These can be used to help justify your interpretations.


Remember in your analysis section to look at nutrition knowledge of your athletes!! Sometimes the tendency is to look at the nutrition needs of the athletes and the possible problems in their diets or supplement intake but for this assignment FOCUS on the nutrition knowledge of the athletes, using examples from your interview and support your analysis statements using your text and a peer reviewed journal.  For example, the athlete is playing high school soccer and is getting fatigued before finishing the game.  He is eating more protein and drinking protein shakes so he doesn’t know why he doesn’t have more energy.  He does not mention carbohydrates so probably does not know that carbohydrate is the main fuel for high intensity activity.1  His coach, internet and parents are the sources listed for nutrition information.  A survey to analyze the nutrition knowledge of high school coaches showed that less than 30% could answer general nutrition questions on carbohydrate and fats.2  The most common nutrition recommendations made by these coaches to their athletes was to hydrate and to consume more protein rich foods.2

Please see my notes that emphasize nutrition knowledge analysis in feedbacks.  This will be helpful in this assignment!   


  1. Dunford, M. and Doyle, J. A. Nutrition for sport and exercise. Cengage; 2019.
  2. Couture S, Lamarche B, Morissette E, Provencher V, Valois P, Goulet C, Drapeau V. Evaluation of Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Recommendations Among High School Coaches. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Aug; 25(4):326-34. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0195.

My survey:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey Template

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?FootballBadmintonFootball and Athletics
At what level?Basic level, just in the community.ProfessionalHigh school teams
How often do you play or practice?Practices daily for around 3 to 4 hours daily. They have a daily routine work out by sprinting, press-ups, and self-directed led and arm work.They participate in regional and national competitions, among many other local competitions. Daily practice is mandatory from the management of the team.Daily during scheduled times (2 hours).
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?Sometimes meals are planned, especially when in the house. When taking meals at the workplace, they are not keen on what they take. Usually is keen on the intake of sugars, especially refined ones, in processed foods. Foods are mostly fresh and natural without any restriction on meat intake. The sportsman is not a professional player and therefore does not have a close eye on the meals they take daily.Within the times of major tournaments and games, players stay together, meals are planned, and are offered by professional nutritionists. Otherwise, personal trainers and managers check the players’ progress and monitor their meal panning. The player is cautious about their performance since it is their full-time performance job.No. players take the regular meals but have an added advantage of having additional fruits and vegetables.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?No. participation in football for this interviewee is just basic. It is not professional, and therefore not so much focuses goes into the practice and maintaining a body fit for the game. The interviewee, however, identifies that in the future, they are interested in playing professional football and therefore might consider checking their meals.Yes, several times. According to the player, some meal plans did not work, and they suggested they be changed. In practice, when players are together, meal plans are not constant. The professional nutritionist consultants change them.No. meal plans remain the same all the time.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Not sure of this; it is not an intentional plan to check what they eat. Herbs and other vitamins and medicinal supplements are included in their meals but not intended as a plan to improve performance in their sport.Yes. The FDA regulates natural phytonutrient concentrates are advised for strong bodies, flexibility, and high performance.No, there are no additional supplements to the meals.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?Knowledge of diet is basic and does not feature any professional inclusions. The sportsman has regular family meals, eats out, and eats from work.From in-house training within the tea and driven by curiosity to have high performance. There is no use of steroids.The player has minimal knowledge.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, when eating right, they tend to perform well in the field; they feel lighter and can tackle opponents. In fact, on days when they have tournaments or competitions, they are selective on what they will eat to have them get the right energy and attitude for the game. Eating junk makes them feel heavy and lose the mood for the game.Yes. Staying in the right meal plans helps keep fit feel ‘right’ while in the field and reduces fatigue and diseases.Yes, having larger volumes of food makes the energetic.

Summary: Sportsmen who are not involved in professional gaming and competition are not cautious about their nutrition. They do not practice intentionally, and mostly, their workout is basic without professional trainers. The second interviewee is a professional performer, keeps right with the meals, and it alters performance in the field positively. Where players are on the right meal plan checked and regulated by professionals, they exhibit higher ability in the field. Generalizing the sporting population on the findings of these interviewees, it can be assumed that most of players do not focus on their nutrition unless they do it for professional basis. At least, every player has some knowledge on nutrition and the importance of focusing on a well planes and professionally reviewed meal plan. In this view, therefore, it can be generalized that most people engaged in sports are informed of the need to ear better if not right. It is notable also that an exceptional performance is recorded within players that play professionally for income. Other people who are participating in sports do not engage in these activities due to limitations from organizations they play for. These organizations plan and prepare meals without considering professional advice.

Interpretation: Knowledge of nutrition is essential in the performance of the body. In sportsmen, nutrition is an essential part of their performance as it determines the power to play and perform in their different fields.1,2,3 A critical view of the meals of players can be used to evaluate their performance. Professional players who have their meals planned and checked from time to time show greater performance compared to participants that do not engage professionally with meal plans.1 The most notable need for nutritional analysis and follow up in sports is for the body’s needs for energy during performance. Repair of body tissues and to establish full cellular function, certain nutritional elements are required. Cellular metabolism relies on vitamins, minerals and amino acids for essential processes that yield energy necessary for performance of players. According to the article,1 professional nutritional assessment for players is necessary but sometimes may be challenging since it is costly especially for players that are not employed for their skills in sports.  Following the observations from the interviews, players’ dedication to meal plans is dependent on the type of players they are and the type of management.


  1. Beck KL, Thomson JS, Swift RJ, von Hurst PR. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery. Open access journal of sports medicine. 2015;6:259-267.
  2. Dunford M, Doyle JA. Nutrition for Sport and Exercis e. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage; 2019
  3. Williams C, Devlin JT. Foods, nutrition, and sports performance.

Nutrition Knowledge Survey Summary Grading Rubric

Nutrition Knowledge Survey Summary Grading Rubric
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent35 to >31.0 pts Advanced Excellent analysis, summary, interpretation and discussion of class results. Submission was clear and provided examples. 31 to >28.0 pts Proficient Acceptable analysis, summary, interpretation and discussion of class results. Submission was not fully clear and/or did not provided examples. 28 to >0.0 pts Developing Student attempted to but did not accurately analyze, summarize, interpret and discuss class results with clarity, understanding and/or examples 0 pts Not Present35 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFormatting15 to >13.0 pts Advanced Excellent spelling and grammar. Word count met. 13 to >12.0 pts Proficient Up to 4 spelling and/or grammar errors. Word count met. 12 to >0.0 pts Developing More than 4 spelling and/or grammar errors. Word count has not been met. 0 pts Not Present15 pts

Calssmate 1:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey Template

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play? FootballBasketballWrestling & Football
At what level? High SchoolHigh SchoolHigh School
How often do play or practice? 5-6 days per week3 days per week, 3 hours per sessionAlmost every day
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat? Team pasta dinner with broccoli, chicken, and bread the night before, plus 1 cup of Pedialyte day of event because this gives me more energy.More pasta and potatoes for extra carbs/extra energy the night before practice/gamesWhen making weight for wrestling, I eat a very strict, healthy diet, with lots of protein, fruit, and a gallon of water each day. This helps me stay in my weight class and still perform well.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why? I haven’t changed my diet much other than the team pasta night.Yes. Days prior to training, I eat a higher carb load. On training days, I eat less carbs and more chicken and broccoli which helps to avoid a carb crash.Now that I’m in football, I don’t have a strict diet. I eat whatever I want but do eat a lot of carbs before lifting because I can give more effort in those workouts.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why? I regularly consume protein drinks and granola bars because they convenient sources of energy for me.My grandmother makes me take a multi-vitamin every morning, but otherwise no.No, I do not.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet? My parents and the internetMy grandmother and YouTubeMy parents
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how? I feel like I have more energy for my events, and I feel overall more relaxed.Yes. I can run and train longer with less fatigue.This diet helps me stay fueled and ready to go. I don’t “cut weight” during football, so that makes it easier to have the strength and energy to perform. During wrestling season, I have to pay closer attention to my energy intake to stay within my weight class and still maintain my performance.

Summary: The sports in reference were football, basketball, and wrestling. All athletes were at a high school level and either practiced or had games three to six days per week. For the athletes participating in football and basketball, they all consumed more carbohydrates within 24 hours of their event. The athlete who’s second sport was wrestling consumed a more strict, lower carbohydrate diet to stay within his weight class. For athlete #1, the only change in his normal diet for his sport (football) was the addition of the team pasta dinners the day before events. For athlete #2, he changed his diet to ensure a higher carbohydrate load the night before events, but less carbohydrates the day of events to help prevent a crash in his performance. Athlete #3 participated in two different sports (football and wrestling), so he had to alter his diet for each season. All athletes used increased carbohydrates to increase their performance. None of the athletes utilized many ergonomic nutritional aids, other than protein drinks and multivitamins. All of the athletes took nutritional advice from their parents, with two of them also using the internet for advice. For all of the sports, except wrestling, the athletes appreciated their dietary changes and stated that their performance was enhanced. For the athlete who also participated in wrestling, his dietary changes helped him stay within his weight class.

Interpretation: The first thing that I noticed while summarizing this information was that all three athletes utilized carbohydrate “loading” (although they did not appear to use the standard protocol for this technique) within 24 hours of their exercise. It is unclear whether they were taught the basic science behind this concept, or if they just figured out that it worked via trial and error. Ensuring proper storage of glycogen in their muscles (and liver for maintaining blood sugar levels) will help the anaerobic glycolysis system function (Dunford & Doyle, 2019). The athlete participating in both football and wrestling seemed to have a good understanding of nutrition and its importance in weight management and sport performance because he utilized two different diets, depending on the sport he was playing. I was surprised that none of the athletes used any supplements, aside from protein powder and multivitamins. I was also surprised that all three athletes got most of their nutrition education from their parents, with additional support from the internet. I definitely believe that the first two athletes could benefit from a more personalized nutrition plan. Jenner, et al. (2019) found that many professional and semi-professional athletes do not meet the recommended, sport-specific dietary intakes, so it would be fair to examine high school athletes and their specific dietary needs. Specifically, many athletes were found to cater their nutritional intake towards body composition goals, which can hinder performance in their sport. Limiting energy intake too much was found to impede recovery as well. Choosing a specific goal and tailoring nutritional needs towards that goal will provide optimal results.


Dunford, M. & Doyle, J. A. (2019). Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage.

Jenner, S. L., Buckley, G. L., Belski, R., Devlin, B. L., & Forsyth, A. K. (2019). Dietary intakes of professional and semi-professional team sport athletes do not meet sport nutrition recommendations – a systematic literature review. Nutrients 11(5), 1160.

Calssmate 2:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey Template 

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?BasketballBasketballFootball
At what level?High schoolHigh schoolCollege
How often do play or practice?Practice 4-5 times a week and one game a week unless tournaments.5 days a week and we play a game every two weeks.During my spring camp we practice six days a week.
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?NoNoI don’t.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?I eat more protein.Yes, sometimes I skip dinner because my family eats during the time I am at practice.Yes, they feed us four meals a day during the camp training. They want us to not lose weight.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?I eat protein bars for breakfast and occasional protein drinks. I eat the bar because it is an easy breakfast, I drink protein to help recover from practice.NoYes, I take multivitamins at dinner and we get protein drinks after we lift weights. The vitamins I don’t know why I take them really and the drink to build muscle.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?My coachI don’t know I just eat whatever is served at school or what ever is at home.I have taken some classes on nutrition before.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, I have lost weight and feel better.I feel tired if I skip dinner sometimes the next day.I feel better and don’t eat junk food anymore because I eat four meals a day.

Summary: The two high school athletes I interviewed both recreational league at small schools here where I live and are currently in playing season. They practice just as much as a real high school varsity team. The collegiate football athlete is currently in his spring camp which last four weeks for him it is intense, but he is out of season right now. None of the athletes really planned their diets mainly just would eat what was provided. Athlete number one replaced their breakfast with protein bars and claimed they changed their diet to consume more protein. The athlete also drank protein shakes occasionally to increase the intake and help with practice recovery. The information about the protein came from the basketball coach who is also a teacher at their school, they also stated that they lost weight. The second athlete has been skipping dinner because practice occurs after school during her family’s dinner time, they do not consume any vitamins or special supplements, the lack of dinner is making the athlete feel tired the next day. Athlete number three is consuming more food than he normally does due to the current training he is involved in. He is also taking multivitamins but does not know why and taking protein to build muscle. His nutrition information has come from his academics. The diet he is on he claims he now no longer eats what he perceives to be junk food.

Interpretation: The athlete’s overall in my opinion don’t know why they are consuming the vitamins and supplements that they consume. The first athlete appears to have a higher protein diet which is associated with less fatigue than a simple calorie deficit (Helms et al., 2015). She is in a calorie deficit if she has lost weight. The coach who is also a teacher for her told her to consume more protein which is a good decision in my opinion, but I don’t believe in consistently replacing meals with protein supplements which the athlete may have misunderstood the coach in this information. The second athlete appears to be suffering from fatigue due to caloric restriction by intermittent fasting (Chaouachi et al., 2009). The family is eating while the athlete is at practice and I assume the athlete just skips eating leftovers because they want to lose weight, I’m worried this could lead to a potential female athlete triad. The last athlete is provided their meals by the university they attend, and I assume is monitored by staff to ensure they eat appropriate for the intense training they are going through.


Chaouachi, Anis1,5; Coutts, Aaron J2; Chamari, Karim1; Wong, Del P3; Chaouachi, Mustapha1; Chtara, Moktar1; Roky, Rachida4; Amri, Mohamed5 Effect of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance and Perception of Fatigue in Male Elite Judo Athletes, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: December 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 9 – p 2702-2709 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bc17fc

Helms, E. R., et al. High-Protein, Low-Fat, Short-Term Diet Results in Less Stress and Fatigue Than Moderate-Protein Moderate-Fat Diet During Weight Loss in Male Weightlifters: A Pilot Study. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2015; 25: 163-70.

Professor feedback: You made some valid points about the nutrition needs of the athletes and are rightly concerned that inadequate intake can lead to fatigue as well as female athlete triad.  Since this assignment is to focus on nutrition knowledge of the athletes, it would be better to change the statements to address the lack of this knowledge by the athletes and likely their coaches as well. 

Looking at nutrition knowledge of high school coaches, forty seven high school coaches were tested on their nutrition knowledge in a study.  “Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids.”1  The most common nutrition recommendations made by these coaches to their athletes was to hydrate and to consume more protein rich foods.1  Your basketball athletes would especially benefit from knowing that carbohydrate is an important fuel for high intensity exercise and that intakes before, during and after exercise can optimize glycogen stores to avoid fatigue.2 

  1. Couture S, Lamarche B, Morissette E, Provencher V, Valois P, Goulet C, Drapeau V. Evaluation of Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Recommendations Among High School Coaches. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Aug;25(4):326-34. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0195.
  2. Dunford, M. and Doyle, J. A. Nutrition for sport and exercise. Cengage; 2019.

Calssmate 3:

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?Wrestling, track, golf. Wrestling and SoccerCross country, wrestling, golf and track & field.
At what level?High SchoolHigh SchoolHigh School
How often do play or practice?6 days a week throughout the whole year. Wrestling 4/5 times a week Soccer 3/4 timesEveryday weekday and some weekends.
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?I change my diet quite often usually during season I try and cut out most salts and sugars. For example, no pop, fast food, chips, other unhealthy foods. I try and eat mostly fruits vegetables and meat. I do this to try and maximize my energy levels. I don’t have a specific diet I just try and incorporate more protein  Yes, I ate lots of carbs (pasta marjory of the time) the night before and/or morning of XC meets and the same for track just a little less. Depending on weight for wrestling I either wouldn’t eat or really limit and watch what I ate before matches. I have no specific diet for golf just to stay hydrated throughout. 
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?Yes, to help compete at a higher level and have higher energy levels I have changed my diet because I was malnutrition and needed to consume more.Didn’t watch what I ate as much as last year compared to this year due to I was underweight and I didn’t think it was as important as I do now. 
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Not often do I take vitamins or other supplements, just because I don’t know anything about them.   I have 1 to 2 protein shakes a day sometimes a protein bar if I’m not feeling up for one of my protein shakes and I also take creatine why because I need more protein and I don’t really remember why I take creatine I’ve just been taking it for a little while.  I’ve been taking vitamins pretty regularly since I got really sick freshman year from influenza. I’ll eat protein bars every now and then that’s it though. Usually, I’ll get the bars from someone else, so no specific reason. 
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?Most of the stuff I do with my diet is off of my own research, but some is off of what coaches have told me about. From my doctor, College nutrition class and online local info   Coaches, friends, family, and sometimes the internet.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, my energy levels are higher, my body feels better, and I have a higher focus.Yes in a good way because it has made me not as fatigue and I can perform at my best.I feel like the carbs definitely helped my body have energy while running. It definitely isn’t ideal to wrestle after you just ate for the first time in like two days, I feel my body doesn’t appreciate that but I do what I have too. I definitely got tired faster in a match and I felt slower from being dehydrated and eating and drinking right before that first match. 

Summary: While observing the answers from the students I interviewed, I saw a lot of things in common. First of all, each of the people I interviewed were wrestlers that I coach. It is challenging to get good nutrition answers from wrestlers because, well, wrestlers do not have very good nutrition. My wrestlers talked about having to make weight and how they would not be able to eat the night before a competition. Interviewee #3 mentioned that she would have to eat right before she wrestles (usually an hour or two after weigh-ins) after not eating for a whole day. The first two interviewers were not cutting very much weight this year and it shows in their responses about nutrition and how it made them feel more energetic than previous years. The interviewees also talked about how they got a lot of their knowledge from coaches they have had and their own internet searching. Two of the interviewees did not mention that they take vitamins however, they did mention that they consume protein bars. Two of the students I interviewed talked about how they are semi-proactive in their diet as far as eating more carbs, and cutting out junk food to feel more energized.

Interpretation: There is a lot to unpack from the responses I received from my student-athletes. The first is how they all have a common theme of being one of my wrestlers. I have coached them for a couple years now and have got to have some good conversations with them about their nutrition. One common thing that I noticed is that that they seemed to be pretty proactive in their pursuit of good nutrition. They have a decent understanding about sports nutrition and what that means. The textbook describes sports nutrition as “the integration and application of scientifically based nutrition and exercise physiology principles that support and enhance training, performance, and recovery” (Dunford et al., 2022). I don’t find it very odd that high school students don’t have a very good grasp of nutrition. The text also states that “Because sports nutrition is a relatively young field, the knowledge base is continually expanding, and our understanding of the field is constantly evolving” (Dunford et al., 2022). Each student demonstrating a decent amount of knowledge on nutrition considering their age. A good example of this is when interviewee #3 mentioned that she would eat more carbs before cross-country and track events.  This is backed up by an article stating “Carbohydrate intake during exercise maintains high levels of carbohydrate oxidation, prevents hypoglycemia, and has a positive effect on the central nervous system” (Beck et al., 2015). This showed she understood how carbs can be an effective means of giving yourself more energy. Interviewee #1 also understood that eating healthy foods and cutting out pop, candy, chips, etc. could lead to higher energy levels and enhanced performance.


Beck, K., Thomson, J. S., Swift, R. J., & von Hurst, P. R. (2015). Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 259.

Dunford, M., Doyle, J. A., & Killian, L. (2022). Nutrition for sport and exercise. Cengage.

Professor feedback: Thank you for focusing on the nutrition knowledge of your wrestlers/interviewees for this assignment on nutrition knowledge of athletes.  You made a valid point about the one athlete increasing carbohydrate intake for track and how this shows nutrition knowledge with your point supported by a peer reviewed reference.  However, the athlete does not know that carbohydrate and protein intake after exercise is the optimum time for glycogen storage and for muscle protein synthesis (mps).1 You should note that all three do get nutrition information from online sources and how online nutrition information is often misleading or incorrect. 1 


1.  Dunford, M. and Doyle, J. A.  Nutrition for sport and exercise. Cengage. 2019.

Calssmate 4:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?Track and Field  RunningRunning
At what level?CollegiateMarathon/Half Marathon LevelRecreational
How often do play or practice?Practice 5 days a week M-F and meets every Saturday during winter/spring season.I run 4 times per week with a cross train day (i.e. spin or pilates) and a recovery day (i.e. yoga or walking).  4-5 days per week.
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?Typically, the day before and day of meets I pay the most attention to my diet and eat in a particular manner. Because I am a sprinter, I usually cannot eat large amounts of food or else my stomach will get upset before/during or after my race so I usually eat smaller amounts of food more often. The day before meets I try to have a balanced dinner, but eat things that don’t make me feel overfull or could upset my stomach the next day. The day of my meets I usually eat foods that are somewhat bland but contain lots of energy such as toast with peanut butter, oatmeal or a bagel along with fruit and lots of water. Throughout meets, which sometimes last all day, I usually have lots of small snacks such as protein bars or bananas. I drink a combination of water and Gatorade to make sure I have enough energy and am hydrated to run.   I do not eat a planned or special diet but do try and encompass as many Whole Foods as I can. I eat a lot of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The night before a long run I try to eat more carbs (i.e. lentil or chickpea pasta) and extra sodium to stay hydrated. During my long runs I use UCANN which is a starch pouch I take every 5 miles. This is basically just an electrolyte pouch that has easily digestible carbs for fuel throughout the run. After my runs I would typically have a meal or snack depending on the time full of healthy fats, carbs and protein to replenish my energy.Yes. I make sure to include a higher carb, lower fat/protein meal if I am running within an hour of the meal. After I run, I make sure to include fat, protein, and carbs. I also bring a quick digestible carbohydrate on my long runs to eat every 7-8 miles.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?Yes, when I first started track in high school I did not pay much attention to what I ate. This resulted in my stomach often being upset after my races and then I would not want to eat at all during a meet day which then caused me to not have enough energy to compete. This is why I started to adjust and pay more attention to what was being put in my body before and during meets. Since track meets can be very long and I run multiple times throughout the day, I have learned how to replenish my body after one race without overeating so I am ready for the next race. Yes, when I first started I was not educated on how to properly fuel my body. I realized what worked best to increase my performance and it became a lifestyle for me.Yes. I put more thought into ensuring I am getting adequate nutrients because running requires so much added calories. I did not properly fuel myself when first starting out running, but I have learned how to fuel and have seen positive results.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?I take a normal multivitamin daily and after practices in the weight room I sometimes have a protein shake to help me recover better. Yes I take a probiotic and multivitamin every day as well as the UCANN pouches throughout my runs.Yes. I put protein powder in my smoothies every morning. I don’t think this is necessary for most people, but I eat a fairly plant-based diet and I like the taste, so I include it to ensure I am getting adequate protein. I recently started taking an iron supplement because my ferritin levels are low. Since I am a female marathon training and I am fairly plant-based, I need to pay special attention to my iron levels. I try to include vitamin C when I eat non-heme iron sources to enhance absorption.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?I have gathered my information from different track coaches and strength and conditioning coaches that I have had.  My college team also had a talk with a nutritionist who gave useful tips about diet geared toward track and field specifically. I also have done some research online on my own throughout the years. I have done a lot of research on my own through google, received a lot of great advice from my coaches/ teammates throughout the years and now take nutrition courses through IIN.I am in school right now to become a Registered Dietitian. When I was in high school, I saw a dietitian. Also, follow many reputable social media accounts (RDs) who provide very good information.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, I think by being mindful of eating things I know don’t upset my stomach, I have been able to be more relaxed before and during my races and I have been able to perform better by being consistently energized. Definitely. As I said before it’s so important to listen to your body. When I started increasing my mileage, I noticed a huge drop in energy levels throughout the day. After altering how I fueled my body before, during and after my runs, I felt a lot healthier and back on track.Yes. When I was not fueling my body correctly, my energy would dip in my workouts. For example, when I did not fuel my long runs, I would dip in energy when I ran half marathons at mile 10-11. Now I do not experience that same dip because I am providing my body with enough carbohydrates. When I did not eat enough in general in high school, I found that my performance in all aspects of life, not just running, were declining.

 Summary: The three individuals I interviewed were all runners. All were at different levels. The first being a collegiate athlete, second being a marathon runner and third being a recreational runner. I did this to get different perspectives from each of the levels. Across the board, all 3 individuals run 4-5 times a week.  When discussing special diets, the marathon level runner did not eat a specialized diet while the other two runners did. Although the marathon runner does not eat a specialized diet, she tries to eat more whole foods and pays attention to her carbohydrates. The collegiate runner based her diet off of the group of running she participated in which was sprinting. In terms of her diet, she would eat smaller amounts of food more often. The recreational runner include a higher carb, lower fat/protein meal if she is running within an hour of the meal. All 3 runners had similar reasoning for why they were eating that specific way. They all do so in order to replenish and keep up their energy. In terms of diet changing once they had started running, all participants said they had absolutely changed, upon learning that certain foods would increase performance capabilities. The collegiate and marathon runner both take a multivitamin. The collegiate and recreational runner use protein powder. The marathon runner incorporates a cornstarch based energy pouch throughout her runs. The recreational runner takes an iron supplement (her iron is low as a female plant based athlete) and vitamin C. All individuals received their knowledge of nutrition from different places. One is in training to become a registered dietitian and another is taking classes through the institute of integrative nutrition (IIN). All three individuals also have gathered information from previous/current coaches as well as research done on their own within the internet and social media. Lastly, all interviewees feel as though their diet has altered their performance. As mentioned before, they each said that it greatly impacted their energy levels.

Interpretation: The interpretation of my survey revealed some interesting information to me. Firstly, I was shocked at how knowledgeable each of my  interviewees was regarding nutrition and their energy levels. As someone who does not consider themselves an athlete, I had little nutrition knowledge prior to beginning my masters. This makes me curious between the correlation of athletes and nutritional knowledge. Nutrition is such an important part of sport performance, I think it is necessary and crucial that athletes are educated on this. The constitutes of a meal can help an athlete finish their race strong or even just give them the endurance to keep going. In order to optimize performance in athletes, nutrition should be learned at a young age1. Much of the nutritional knowledge my interviewees had were from childhood sport team coaches and team mates. It is crucial that athletic professionals have a baseline knowledge on nutrition, so they are able to give athletes the right tools to excel. One study looked at the relation of nutrition in prevention of injuries in track and field athletes2. The study showed that various nutrition strategies, including macro and micronutrients, as well as total energy intake, reduce the risk of injury and improve recovery time2. Overall, the main points I took from my survey regarded the importance of nutrition knowledge in athletes .


1.) Jeukendrup A, Cronin L. Nutrition and elite young athletes. Karger Publishers. Published December 21, 2010. Accessed March 16, 2022.

2.) Close GL, Sale C, Baar K, Bermon S. Nutrition for the prevention and treatment of injuries in track and field athletes. Human Kinetics. Published March 1, 2019. Accessed March 16, 2022.

Professor feedback: Good job addressing the nutrition knowledge level of your athletes in this assignment about nutrition knowledge of athletes!  You interviewed some unusually nutrition knowledgeable athletes, as indicated by the responses about carbohydrate and electrolyte use as well as the sources of nutrition information from nutritionists and nutrition classes taught by nutrition experts.  You did mention other sources of nutrition information, such as coaches, which may or may not be reliable sources of research based nutrition information.  In a study of college Division II athletes and coaches (145 student-athletes and 21 coaches), only 21 student-athletes and 9 coaches had satisfactory scores of 75% knowledge from a nutrition survey.1

It would also be good to note that there is room for improved nutrition knowledge in that no one mentioned that optimum glycogen storage and muscle protein synthesis (mps) occurs with the right amount of carbohydrate and protein consumed within 1 to 2 hours after exercise.2


  1. Acquaviva, J., & Domitrovits, L.  Sports Nutrition Knowledge of Division II Student-Athletes and Their Coaches. Journal Of Athletic Performance And Nutrition.  2021; 7(2):1-9. doi:10.31131/japn.v7i2.99
  2. Dunford, M. and Doyle, J. A. Nutrition for sport and exercise. Cengage, 2019.

Calssmate 5:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?Women’s VolleyballBaseballMen’s Volleyball
At what level?College, Division 3College, Division 3College, Division 3
How often do play or practice?6 days per week6 days per weekOnce or twice a day
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?I do not eat a special diet. On game days I do eat a grilled cheese.I try to make sure I’m eating enough to maintain weight during the season, and I eat a steak the night before I pitch.I eat a gluten free diet focusing mainly on achieving protein intake goals of 175-180g per day and ensuring I get at least 4-5 servings of produce. I have a higher carb intake day of to make sure I have enough stored energy. I mainly use fruits and potatoes, sometimes oatmeal or granola.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?I have started to try to eat healthier and raise the amount of protein I eat.I focus more on getting enough protein than I used to.Yes. Its mostly changed as I gained a better understanding of overall nutrition and using that to eat for higher performance
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?I do not take any added supplements.I drink protein shakes after each workout, and I take 5 mg of creatine dailyRegular protein supplementation along with BCAA and creatine intake during/after intensive exercise to aid in growth and recovery.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?The internet. I try to research healthier options.Mainly the internet, and I’ve taken some advice from friendsMainly from my own research of sports nutrition  
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes. I am much stronger and leaner. I can hit harder, move faster, and my stamina is longer. Yes, it has helped me gain muscle mass and strength to throw harderIt has significantly affected the amount of energy I have day to day along with muscle gain and fat loss, another factor is also the decision to cut gluten out of my diet improving my overall digestive health along with significantly reducing alcohol intake

Summary: I interview 3 college athletes. They all play in the Division 3 conference. What I have noticed is that there is a different in men and women with supplements in their diet. It showed in this, but I was also noticing it before this. I have seen that men are more likely to add supplements into their diet. I am not sure why this is but throughout my time as an athlete I always saw more men than women using supplements. They are practicing almost every day if not every day so that has a big impact on what they are eating. It is interesting that they all said they have gotten most of their information from researching it themselves. That goes to show we are not getting the proper training and information about nutrition. I can see that they have all noticed that what they eat does affect them and they have noticed that. That is an important first step wo wanting to learn more about nutrition.

Interpretation: Athletes in the Division 3 (D3) conference are not given enough training on nutrition. They are having to find information themselves. In a study done on D3 athletes assess the dietary practices and sources of nutrition information. They saw that they had very basic dietary knowledge. They knew not to skip meals and to eat protein but that was really the extent of their knowledge. It also showed that they were getting most of their information about it from social media, coaches, and athletic trainers. They knew that dietitians/nutritionists are the most knowledgeable but do not have enough access to them (Klein at al, 2021).

Since I have experience with D3 and can relate closely with them I thought I would look and see if would differed with Division 1 athletes. I would have thought that they would have more knowledge on nutrition however a study done by Danh at al says differently. Their results were that D1 athletes do not have proper training on nutrition and are not getting their information from professionals with training (Danh et al, 2020).

With looking at these studies and seeing that neither division athletes have enough correct information on nutrition I wonder why it is not pushed more. I think that nutrition, especially for college athletes at any level is so important. Our bodies go through so much during the season I would think the coaches and even the training room would value have more resources on nutrition.


Danh, J., Kurtz, J., Nucci, A., Doyle, J., Feresin, R., (2020). Assessment of Sports Nutrition

Knowledge of NCAA Division I Collegiate Athletes. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,

Klein, D. J., Eck, K. M., Walker, A. J., Pellegrino, J. K., & Freidenreich, D. J. (2021). Assessment of

Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Dietary Practices, and Sources of Nutrition Information in NCAA Division III Collegiate Athletes. Nutrients, 13(9), 2962.

Calssmate 6:

Interviewee #1
Interviewee #2Interviewee #3 
What sport do you play?GolfLong DriveBaseball
At what level?ProfessionalProfessionalCollege
How often do play or practice?Every day.3x per week.Every day except for Sunday.
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?Yes. Eats a healthy breakfast consisting of some protein and complex carbohydrates. Usually eggs with oatmeal.No.No.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?Yes. Has adapted diet to consist of a more nutritious breakfast versus previously just having a donut or fast-food breakfast burrito. Changed because he ran out of energy during rounds. He eats much more food to try to recover from the strenuous training. He was very tired and fatigued days after training on lower calories.Yes but not on purpose. Eating worse quality food in the cafeteria at college versus mom’s home cooking.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Yes. Protein bars are used during rounds and whey protein is occasionally used after training in the gym which is roughly 2x per week.Yes. Takes a B complex, omega oils, creatine monohydrate, and whey protein powder. Added the B complex for energy, the omega oils for joint pain, creatine monohydrate for muscle and strength gain, and the whey protein powder to gain muscle.No.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?Trial and error as well as consulting with other competitive golfers. Mainly YouTube and blogs.His mom is a health coach so his mom and his school’s strength and conditioning coach.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?He feels that the quality pre-round breakfast definitely gives him more sustainable energy throughout the day leading to better performance.Unsure. He thinks the more calories are giving him more energy to perform better.He thinks the school’s food is making him slower and feel more sluggish but is unsure if it is due to that or the fact that in college they practice more than in high school.

 Summary: The interviewees for this assignment are at an advanced level in sports. The professional golfer is somewhat knowledgeable about nutrition in his explanation of why he made changes to his diet. He is familiar with the differences in energy and performance when eating a less nutritious breakfast versus a more complete meal. He even mentioned intra-competition food as a source of fuel to continue to optimally perform.The professional long driver has a lot less knowledge than the golfer. The professional long driver does not pay attention to the types of food that he eats. The focus is solely on quantity and not quality. He wants to eat lots of calories to try to recover from training but does not care where these calories are coming from and the impact that the different types of food will have on his body. YouTube and blogs are his main reference for learning about nutrition. The collegiate baseball player used to have a much better diet in high school before going away to college. His mom is a health coach and would cook lots of home-cooked meals. Now at school, his diet is inconsistent while eating cafeteria food. He has thoughts about this making him feel weak and sluggish but is also thinking that it is due to the more frequent intense practices.


            Properly fueling before exercise is super important in an athlete’s ability to optimally perform. It is awesome that the professional golfer already had a basic understanding of how his body responds better to quality food with complex carbohydrates versus simple carbohydrates such as a donut. Complex carbohydrates will provide more sustainable energy for a longer period of time than a simple carbohydrate can. Another important macronutrient that the golfer is leaving out is fat. Fat acts as a very sustainable energy source for long periods of time during lower intensity training (Kanter, 2018). Golf is an incredibly long low-intensity sport with competition rounds lasting up to six hours. Including a couple-hour warmup makes for a very long day in which fat could help stabilize energy levels throughout the day.

            The professional long driver is doing himself an injustice by not taking nutrition seriously. By not paying attention to the quality of nutrition and focusing solely on the total caloric intake, he is not providing his body with the best sources of fuel. For instance, 1,000 calories of cinnamon rolls are very different than 1,000 calories of broccoli, brown rice, and lean beef. Some of his problems may be coming from the sources that he uses to obtain his nutrition information. YouTube and blogs are not the most reliable sources. He would benefit from planning the timing of his nutrition such as carbohydrates to give him access to more glycogen to create better performance when swinging. Glycogen is a huge energy source for exercise but also regulates exercise-induced adaptations (Mata, 2019). This will not only help him perform better temporarily but can lead to more speed gains down the road.

            Many college students go through what the collegiate baseball player is struggling with since going to college. The saying “freshman 15” is students gaining 15 pounds from leaving home and not having the discipline to eat a balanced diet. There are many healthier options in the cafeteria that the baseball player could choose to create a better nutrition plan. He luckily has a background in proper nutrition from his mom but he needs to have the discipline to put thoughts into action. The frequency of training can make him feel more tired but it will also be way worse with poor nutrition. It is more crucial for him to eat better now than it has ever before if he wants to perform at his best.


Kanter, M. (2018, Jan.). High-quality carbohydrates and physical performance. Nutrition Today. 53(1): 35-39. Retrieved from

Mata, F., Valenzuela, P.L., Gimenez, J., Tur, C., Ferreria, D., Dominguez, R., Sanchez-Oliver, A.J., & Sanz, J.M.M. (2019, May). Carbohydrate availability and physical performance: Physiological overview and practical recommendations. Nutrients. 11(5):1084. Retrieved from

Calssmate 7:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey

What sport do you play?CrossFitTaekwondoMarathon Runner
At what level?Level 22nd Degree Black BeltElite
How often do play or practice?5 days a week4 days a week5 runs weekly
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?Yes, lean meats, vegetables, nuts, and fruits, limited amounts of sugar. To enhance muscles and improve performance.Just a well-balanced diet of fruit, vegetables, and protein with plenty of good carbs such as oatmeal, brown rice, and beans.To help with my performance and achieve my goals. My diet consists of lean protein, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?Yes, when I first began CrossFit, I was overweight and wanted to lose then I started competing in CrossFit competitions, so I wanted to be able to perform at my best.Not really, I have eaten this way for many years.Yes, because I wanted to be able to reach my goals when running a marathon.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Yes, vitamins daily, protein drinks and bars sometimes. To help reach my daily protein and keep me energized for my workouts.NoYes, I will usually have a protein bar or drink post run because it will help rebuild muscle. I will also eat protein bars during a long run because of the nutrients and carbs.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?From my CrossFit coachLearned it through the years with advice from my instructors.  Research, other runners, and personal trainers.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, it has helped with my energy levels, performance during competitions, and sleep.Yes, it helps increase my stamina, strength, and energy.  Yes, my diet helps fuel my body to complete my marathons and help to prevent injuries.

 Summary: The table above contains the nutrition knowledge information of three athletes. The table shows their sport, level of sport, and how often they practice their chosen sport. The athletes are surveyed on their diets, how the sport has changed their diets, and if their current diet has changed their performance of the sport in either a good or bad way. The athletes were also surveyed on their intake of vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements. Lastly, all three athletes revealed how they gained their diet knowledge for the sport that they participate in.

Interpretation: Nutrition is essential for supporting an athlete’s general health and their training needs. For athletes to stay in shape they require a lot of energy and nutrients therefore, it is important for an athlete to understand their nutritional needs to achieve the desired outcome for the sport that they participate in. When interviewing the three athletes, it is apparent that they all have chosen healthy diets that will improve their performances in their sport of choice. For example, interviewee #2 the athlete that participates in Taekwondo competitions understands that his nutritional needs may require more carbohydrates than other athletes due to the energy boost that is given before workouts and during competitions. Although, all three athletes consume a healthy diet, it is unclear if they really understand that a nutrition plan is needed to match their training plan. “Athletes need a nutrition plan that complements the physical demands of training and performance and supports good health.”1(Chapter 1) Athletes need to consider their caloric needs, macronutrient amounts and ratios, meal and snack timing, vitamins and minerals that may be needed for performance and recovery, and hydration. All of these should be tailored to the athlete’s body composition, time spent training, and type of sport. Overall, I do feel that all three athletes have the basic understanding of what nutritional intake they need to perform their sport and improve their performance since all the athletes I interviewed have participated in their sport for several years. However, none of the athletes have gotten any knowledge from a professional such as a registered dietitian nutritionist. A registered dietitian nutritionist would be able to help personalize a nutrition plan for the athletes based on sport, age, gender, and amount of training. Having a suitable diet provides a person with enough energy and nutrients to meet the demands of training and exercise a long with helping a person perform optimally and it assists with recovery.


  1. Dunford M, Doyle JA. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage; 2019.
  2. Spriet, L. Performance nutrition for Athletes. Sports Medicine1 (2019): 1-2.

Calssmate 8:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey Template

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?SwimmingBasketballTrack & Field
At what level?CompetitiveHigh SchoolMasters
How often do play or practice?4x/w5x/w3x/w
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?No, because there isn’t a lot of time until the events occur. There is a lack of knowledge in the area of nutrition.It’s not a significant concern because nutrition isn’t a priority.Except for the four food groups that I strive to incorporate the day of a track meet, there is no particular diet planned (eggs, toast, and banana.)
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?I increased the number of carbohydrates, fruits, and vegetables consumed. As a result, I’m usually hungry, and I’ve noticed.No, I don’t know what modifications are required without information.I’ve cut down on fast food due to bloating and fatigue.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?No, I’d always been told they were horrible, so I’d have no idea where to start or even where to buy them.Yes, I take a multivitamin to help me perform better.Before practice, I would sometimes eat an energy bar or chew an energy chewable to keep my strength.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?YouTube, social media or a well-researched article are all viable options.TeammatesCoach and professional trainer
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, I was hungry and tried since I wasn’t performing at my best.Yes, it made me tired and slowed me down during the game.Yes, it had a positive impact on my performance.

Summary: The three athletes I chose to interview competed in a wide range of sports and at varying performance levels. The first competitor is a female competitive swimmer who competes year-round. The second athlete on the list is a female high school basketball player. The third competitor is on the Master’s Track & Field squad. I felt it was vital to interview three different types of athletes who compete at different levels. Overall, each athlete recognized that their diet played a significant role in their success in the water, court, and track. Each athlete was able to speak more clearly about their diet and how it had changed or improved with the help of coaches or nutritionists due to their increased understanding over the competition season. The first athlete understood very little about nutrition or the benefits of correct nutrition, but my second athlete learned more about nutrition and proper nutrition. My third athlete knew what worked best for her with the support of a coach and personal trainer. She was able to talk about what she ate on competition days, what was included in her recovery, and, most significantly, the daily nutrition education she received.

Interpretation: These three athletes all had different attitudes and knowledge bases when it came to nutrition, education, and the requirement of being able to compete in the pool, court, or track. Each athlete has had their nutritional needs misunderstood in the past. Due to their high training volumes and dietary needs.1 Basketball, track and field, and other activities may necessitate more significant energy expenditure. Only one athlete talked about when she should eat and when she shouldn’t, while the other two had no timetable or plan. Despite this, evidence suggests that many athletes consume insufficient amounts of food, which may be due to a lack of nutrition expertise. The biggest issue I’ve discovered is that athletes’ sports performance will be hindered if they aren’t well-versed in nutrition. If bad habits are broken, an athlete’s performance capacity will improve. According to a study, athletes are unaware of the nutritional requirements for optimum health.² Athletes’ endurance will improve with continued instruction and knowledge of better dietary approaches.


  1. Foo WL, Faghy MA, Sparks A, Newbury JW, Gough LA. The Effects of a Nutrition Education Intervention on Sports Nutrition Knowledge during a Competitive Season in Highly
    Trained Adolescent Swimmers. Nutrients. 2021: 6;13(8):2713.
  2. Trakman GL, Forsyth A, Devlin BL, Belski R. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge
    Measures. Nutrients. 2016:16;8(9):570.

Calssmate 9:

Table 1: Table summarizes the data for the Nutrition Knowledge Survey.
Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?VolleyballRunningBasketball
At what level?High SchoolCollegeCollege (competitive)
How often do you play or practice?WeekendsFive days a weekDaily
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or before your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?No, I do not have a regular planned or special diet. However, a few hours before my games, I consume a lot of carbohydrates, like in a chicken sandwich or a protein bar. I drink a lot of fluids daily. The fluids help with hydration to maintain my performance in the game. The carbohydrates help with energy.  Yes, I eat a special diet. My diet regularly consists of fruits, vegetables, and a sufficient amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. My diet has a lot of calories to provide energy for my distance race. When training, I eat a meal consisting of lean, healthy fat and fiber, some protein, and many carbohydrates. Also, an hour before running, I eat a banana or an apple.Yes, I eat a planned diet regularly. My diet consists of carbohydrates, which help increase my performance and prevent muscle tiredness. The proteins I eat help avoid muscle loss, potassium prevents cramping, and fluids to hydrate. Before my game, I eat high-carbohydrate like whole grain, low-fiber, low protein, and low-calorie meals about 1-3 hours before. After my game, an example of my evening meal is tofu with a large baked potato, peas, tossed salad, and a glass of plant-based milk.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?No, I did not change my diet since I started playing volleyball because I am not training for competition.Yes, I have changed my diet since I started running. I changed my diet because I am a long-distance runner, so I needed to get more carbs to endure a race and recover from a race.Yes, I have changed my diet since I started basketball but not much because I was raised a vegetarian and my diet was already well-balanced with good fruits and vegetables. However, I had to increase my proteins to enhance my performance and prevent muscle depletion.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Yes, I regularly take vitamins in my diet, protein drinks, and bars, and sometimes I drink help with my muscles and replace the fluids I lose.Yes, I include daily vitamins in my diet like iron and vitamin D. Sometimes, I eat protein bars after I workout to help with my muscle recovery.Yes, I include daily vitamins in my diet to help with the nutrients that I may not get in my diet. I do not use protein drinks.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?Parents and the internetNutritionistNutrition Counselor
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how? My diet helps me perform from the start to the game’s finish.My diet has enhanced my performance. I have the stamina to finish all of my races.My diet helps increase energy, recovery, strength and sustain my performance.

Summary: The basketball player I interviewed plays more competitively than the runner, and the volleyball athlete plays more for leisure and exercise. The basketball player and the runner get nutrition advice from credible sources, but the volleyball player does not. The diet composition for these three athletes varies significantly due to the type of sport and level of intensity. The volleyball player did not change his diet because he believes his games are not competitive. Thus, he only eats for endurance and strength. However, his daily fluid intake is consistent whether he plays or not. The diet for the two college athletes is similar because they play regularly and competitively. Both athletes changed their diets to achieve maximum performance and recovery in their respective sports. The runner has a healthy, well-balanced diet that consists of fruits, vegetables, proteins, and carbohydrates. The runner began eating more fruits after he started running. The basketball player is a vegetarian, and his diet consists of healthy options overall, but he needed to increase his protein intake. Both college-level players agree that the changes made to their diets enhanced their performance.

Interpretation: Athletes are different in skills and training1. The runner and basketball players are trained athletes who require good nutrition for excellent performance. However, the high school player is a performance-focused recreational athlete who plays sports for physical activity. The athletes require proper nutrition to perform and replenish the nutrients depleted. The high intake of carbohydrates for the runner and basketball player is essential to supply glycogen to the muscles 1,2. Nutrient-dense foods such as whole grain, legumes, nuts, and starchy vegetables, for example, sweet potato, will provide sufficient carbohydrates for aerobic and anaerobic exercise2. Protein is important for the growth and repair of tissues and cells2. Proteins will help to prevent muscle loss. Examples of proteins are legumes, chicken, and tofu—healthy fats such as omega-3 fats and avocadoes. Hydration for all athletes is vital to replenish nutrients lost during sweating, regulate body temperature, and keep joints lubricated.

Additionally, it is good that all players take vitamins. An example of an essential vitamin is vitaminB12 supplements, especially for the basketball player. Vegetarians do not usually get an adequate amount of vitamin B12 from their diet, so they need to take supplements or B12 fortified foods. The runner may have sufficient vitamin B12 in his diet because he consumes lean meat. Vitamin B12 helps with iron absorption1,2. Iron is required to take oxygen to the cells 2.

Moreover, full recovery and good performance require adequate replenishment of energy, fluid, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals2. Therefore, it is recommended that the volleyball player get a nutrition plan to eat a planned diet regularly, although he is not competing. Nutritional replenishment will prevent fatigue during and after competitions or games. The nutrition plan for the volleyball player will require fewer calories than the basketball player and runner. Finally, he should seek nutrition advice from a nutritionist, registered dietitian, or government sites such as MyPlate.


  1. Beck KL, Thomson JS, Swift RJ, von Hurst PR. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015;6:259-267. Published 2015 Aug 11. doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S33605
  2. Purcell LK. Sport nutrition for young athletes. Paediatrics & child health. Published April 2, 2013. Accessed March 17, 2022.

Calssmate 10:

Interviewee #1
Interviewee #2Interviewee #3 
What sport do you play?CrossfitBody builderSkiing/ freeride
At what level? Moderate/ Novice level- understands the basics, and techniquesNovice level/AmateurAdvanced- understands the basics; skiing for 20 years. Able to navigate harder more dense (untouched) terrain.
How often do play or practice?3-4 times a week5-7 times a week30 days a season (120 days in a season)
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?Yes to promote maximum performance and high energy levels. The diet consists of macros, specifically Cliff Bar & bananaYes. I consume a high carb, low fat, and moderate protein diet. I utilize carbs as my main source of energy to promote glycogen storage and maximize muscle gain. I also eat a moderate amount of protein to maximize muscle growth.Yes, I will eat to support the activity. My diet is usually carb heavy. Skiing is usually muscular endurance heavy in comparison to strength. I will also usually take something to eat during the event, something quick energy carbohydrate.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?Yes to achieve maximum resultsYes. During my off season I eat in a surplus to create an optimal environment for muscle development and growth. During my cut phase I reduce carbs.Yes, to attenuate the effects of the physical demands of the sport. I would eat carbs throughout my journey to ensure I got what I needed.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Yes, it makes me feel more energizedI seldom incorporate whey protein. Most of my protein intake comes from meats.Yes, I eat vitamins for general health. I eat protein to include whey protein. I eat them to support performance and for gains in muscular endurance.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?NutritionistNutritionistI read a book, renaissance diet, and received more information by researching dieting on YouTube.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes, I am more energized and I am able to hit peak performanceYes, I have gained strength and muscle endurance due to my dietary changes. A high carbohydrate diet supports the extreme physical demands of bodybuilding enabling me to have more sustainable energy.It enhanced my performance. I learned the difference between eating for performance and eating for health. I learned to have balance. Sometimes energy consumption for performance is different for health.

Summary: I interviewed a variety of athletes with different physiological needs, and different biomechanical functions and requirements. It is important to note that all athletes are individuals are also members of the armed forces; however participate in their respective sports in the evenings and on the weekends with the exception of my athlete, which is a skier. All athletes have a general understanding of the impact that nutrition has on performance, and how imperative it is to have a balanced diet. They all train and practice consistently throughout the week when possible. All athletes consume a high carbohydrate (Carb) diet for energy. Only two of the athletes consider or take supplements, however the body builder does not believe it necessary. They do not express it, but they seem to understand planning their meals in order to suffice demands of the sport. They have gained their understanding of nutrition and dieting from experts, or have done self-research from suggested readings and internet based searches. Nevertheless, each athlete exclaims that their plan is effective for meeting their personal and performance goals.

Interpretation: Nutrition has an immense impact on performance allowing athletes allowing consistent training and is essential for replenishing nutrient stores depleted during training (Dunford & Doyle, 2022). The athletes that I interviewed have a good knowledge and understanding of maintaining a well-balanced diet, and they understanding the importance of tracking macronutrients. These answers do not openly express it, but each athlete understands the need for developing or having a developed nutrition plan to reach personal and performance goals. It is imperative that a parallel athletes develop nutrition plans to support the various training cycles (Dunford & Doyle, 2022).  Each athlete has an understanding that carbohydrates are an important macronutrient as the body’s primary energy source. Carbohydrate intake prior to endurance based exercises has been shown to enhance performance, but does not have an effect during high intensity bouts (due to lactate build up) though is still encouraged (Hargreaves, 1991). One of my athletes interviewed does not have much faith in supplements. My research found several supplements are commercially available, but few may be of benefit for endurance activities, including nitrates, antioxidants, caffeine, and probiotics (Vitale & Getzin, 2019). Many athletes, such as the skier and cross fitter, consume supplements to meet broad goals, such as increasing strength or endurance, but do not known whether the supplements they take are effective (Dunford & Doyle, 2022). My athletes mostly talk about using supplements for protein intake. Research describes that typically protein is more beneficial and recommended to have a higher intake for power and strength athletes (CrossFit or body builder) than for endurance athletes (skier) (Vitale & Getzin, 2019). However, given that the body builder does not use protein supplements as aid, it is imperative to relay the importance of protein (both total daily intake and immediate post-exercise consumption), and emphasize adequate intake is to improve recovery, ameliorate muscle damage, and maintain muscle mass (Vitale & Getzin, 2019).


Dunford, M., & Doyle, J. A. (2022). Nutrition for sport and exercise. Cengage Mindtap (4th    ed.). Cengage. Retrieved March 17, 2022, from    8554319141&eISBN=9781337556774&id=1450056718&snapshotId=287            2459&dockAppUid=16&nbId=2872459&

Hargreaves, M. (1991). Carbohydrates and exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences9(sup1), 17–28.

Vitale, K., & Getzin, A. (2019). Nutrition and supplement update for the endurance athlete: Review and recommendations. Nutrients11(6), 1289.

Calssmate 11:

Interviewee #1 Interviewee #2 Interviewee #3
What sport do you
Subject A plays football Subject B plays
Subject C Active
Army/played college
football/high school
foot, track,
basketball, baseball
At what level? Middle
Middle School-AAU Joined Army 2012 –
present active duty/
played college
football/high school
foot, track,
basketball, baseball
How often do you
play or practice?
Daily between three to
Daily between two-
three hour
Daily 5 days a week/
Game season for 4
days during 4 hours.
Do you eat a
planned or special
diet regularly or
before your event?
If so, why, and
what do you eat?
Yes, daily planned meals
during football season.
Eats more vegetables
and drinks plenty of
water for hydration and
high physical
Yes, Subject B eats a
special diet regularly
during basketball
season. His diet is a
pescatarian; therefore,
he adds granola bars
and Body Armor drinks
for recovery.
Both answered yes;
Subject C has been a
pescatarian for seven
years. Healthier
lifestyle for family
and healthier physical
and mental
Seafood (crab,
shrimp, and
Salamon); fresh
organic vegetables
and fruits.
Since the beginning
of your
involvement in this
sport, have you
changed your diet?
If so, why?
Yes, Subject A
consumes less junk food
like McDonald’s but
increased eating
vegetables and more
protein. Healthier
performance and game
Yes, Subject B has
been a pescatarian for
six years. Parents
decided to eat healthier
for healthier lifestyles
and more nutritional
and physical
Yes, gradually
changed their diet
plans as they became
more educated on
healthy living and
Do you regularly
include any
vitamins, protein
drinks or bars,
herbs, or any other
type of
supplements in
No, Subject A is
unfamiliar with
vitamins, protein drinks,
or bars.
Yes, Subject B does
include protein bars in
his diet before practice
and game time. Protein
bars give energy.
No, Subject C
regularly  include
fresh organic
vegetables and fruits
drinks that have been
organic certified

your diet? If so,
Where did you get
your knowledge
about your diet?
Parents Parents Subject C received
knowledge from life
documented research,
Do you feel this
diet has altered
your performance?
If so, how?
Healthier and better
Healthier and better
Healthier and
rejuvenated lifestyle.
More energetic and
improved cognitive
thinking. No more stagnant.
Summary: The survey’s athlete subjects dedicated a least three days a week to training, regardless of their skill levels. They were well aware of their nutritional needs and proactive with their meal planning and hydration. Training requires an athlete’s dedication to properly improving performance before an event or maintaining performance. Dunford & Doyle defined sports nutrition as “the integration and application of scientifically based nutrition and exercise physiology principles that support and enhance training, performance, and recovery.1 They informed me that they eat less meat, protein, and fast foods; therefore, they consume more plant-based protein foods. For example, one plant-based name brand is Morning Star. According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guideline for Americans, the products provide them with substrate nutrients needed. They do add a variety of vegetables and fruits to their daily diets. Especially since they have different skills and levels of training. Subjects A and B are collegiate athletes whose training regime as trained athletes nonprofessionals. They are adolescents yet growing and developing. Subject C represented the parents of Subject B. Subject C was a combination of active duty Army and college football athletes. All interviewees required increased energy, regardless of physical activity, exercise, and sport. They are transforming their daily diets into healthier lifestyles based on nutritional education.
Interpretation: The interviewees eat adequate carbohydrates, protein, fats and drink plenty of fluid; however, Subject C (parents of Subject B) are pescatarians, and they regularly plan their meals, and they are educating Subject A and Subject B on better food selections for overall healthier eating. The athletes understood that generally, their training aimed to improve their performance before, during, and recovery to avoid any injury or overtraining.1 The subjects preferred organic fruits and vegetables above using dietary supplements to prevent any nutrient deficiencies. Dunford & Doyle stated that “athletes are ten percent or less to use an herbal supplement, unless ginseng and echinacea.” 1 Subject A and Subject B are both adolescents experiencing physical, emotional, and cognitive changes. Therefore, this pivotal time offers opportunities for openness to change and drive the social environment. Health professionals can effectively study the Social-Ecological Model which indicate how effective a student’s food and physical activity improves; therefore, school policies that implement healthier school food settings influence and improve students’ food choices resulting in higher dietary quality of the food consumed during the school day. Dunford & Doyle said that nutrition supports training, recovery, and performance compared with Sandra Byrd. She said eat, play, and grow with aligning biblical scriptures to one’s life.3 Therefore, in Matthew 4:4, Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.”‘4
1. Dunford M, Doyle JA. Nutrition For Sport and Exercise, 4th Edition. 4th ed. Cengage
Learning; 2019.
2. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
3. Byrd S. Eat, Play, grow. 2009.
4. Life.Chruch. YouVersion Bible. Web site. . Updated

Calssmate 12:

 Interviewee #1 Interviewee #2 Interviewee #3 
What sport do you play?  Ultra-Marathon  Basketball  Track (1600m) 
At what level?  Advanced/Competitive  High-school High-school 
How often do play or practice?  Daily  Monday-Friday Monday-Friday 
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?  Yea, the week leading up to a race, I will have a larger proportion of my plate be carbohydrates for example, more rice or pasta. My protein of choice is chicken or salmon. I want my glycogen stores to be filled up.   Yes, prior to my game, I’ll have 2 hard boiled eggs and 2 slices of wheat bread. The eggs provide protein and are rich in vitamins and minerals. The bread provides the carbs.  Yes, I like to eat pasta with tomato sauce with ground beef. The meat provides protein for my muscles and pasta brings sufficient carbs.  
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?  Before being competitive, I would just eat anything. Now, I know what to eat and when to eat because I have learned from YouTube, books, magazines, and my coach back in high school.   My diet has gotten better as in healthier prior to games because my coach said I need to put better foods into my body to perform better.  I haven’t eaten this much pasta if it wasn’t for being on the track team. The runners on the team always mention carb-loading.  
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?  I used to take multi-vitamins, but I’d rather get my nutrients from fruits and vegetables. The cost of racing and shoes get pricey, so I like to save some money by not buying pills.   I take a daily multi-vitamin because I don’t eat as much vegetables as I should. I take a protein drink after my weight-training days to help with recovery.   I just take a multi-vitamin my parents buy to supplement my diet in case I am deficient in any vitamins. I don’t take any protein drinks or protein bars. 
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?  From books, magazines, YouTube, my HS coach.   My coach and teammates.   My fellow runners, coach and Runner’s World magazine.  
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?  Yes, it has provided me with the energy needed to run for 10hrs or more for my ultra-marathon races.   Yes, I feel like I can run up and down the court with more energy when I have a nutritious meal compared to when I skip a meal.   Aside from conditioning, I know that with the help of eating better and fueling up prior to meets, that it has helped me obtain personal records.  

Summary: To summarize, I interviewed 3 individuals and asked them to answer questions, which were provided on the “Nutrition Knowledge Survey” template. These questions will be used to survey their knowledge about nutrition and sports performance. I questioned an older gentleman who competes in ultra-marathons. An ultra-marathon is any race that is longer than 26.2 miles. The longest race he ran was a 50-miler in California. The other athlete I interviewed was a high school basketball player. He plays shooting guard on his local recreation team. The last athlete I interviewed was a distance runner on his high school’s track and field team. He specializes in the 1600m. When asked how often they play or practice, the ultra-marathon runner said daily, whereas the other two high school athletes said only 5 days a week. The high school athletes like to keep their weekends free and hang out with their friends or do their schoolwork. Similarly, all three athletes stated that they do have a type of special diet that they eat. For the runners, both consume more carbohydrates than usual leading up to their big race to top off their fuel storage of glycogen. The basketball player enjoys two eggs and two slices of whole wheat bread before his games. The athletes also consume a small portion of protein so that their muscles do not break down during competition help recover afterward. All three athletes stated that by getting into sports, they were able to learn a little bit more about nutrition from their coaches. Prior to being on teams and competing, they didn’t know what to eat or when to eat. They also learn about sports nutrition from magazines, books, and from watching YouTube. They all feel that their diets have improved their performance. When asked if they take any vitamins or special supplements, they somewhat had different responses. One athlete said they stopped taking multi-vitamins so that he could save money. He prefers getting his vitamins and minerals from fruits and vegetables. The basketball athlete does take a multi-vitamin and consumes a protein drink after his resistance training days. The track athlete takes a multi-vitamin but does not take any protein supplements.  

Interpretation: In my analysis, I can see that all three athletes consume a meal that is high in carbohydrates leading up to the competition. Studies have shown that 82% of investigations demonstrated statistically greater endurance performance or capacity with carbohydrate intake when compared with just water alone.1 This shows how important carbohydrates are to athletes. When these long-distance runners combine caffeine and sodium, performance can be enhanced.1 Furthermore, another journal article stated that basketball players should consume 5-7 g/kg/day of carbohydrates to replenish muscle glycogen stores and 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day of protein throughout the day (ex. every 4-5 h), at .31 g/kg per occasion to support muscle recovery.2 By the looks of it, the athletes I interviewed are getting in their carbohydrate and protein. It’s also important that these athletes stay hydrated and get enough sleep to maximize their recovery.2 The reasoning is that some teams can have less than 24 hours between practices/games.   


  1. Stellingwerff T. Competition nutrition practices of elite ultramarathon runners. Int journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2016; 26(1):93-99.  
  2. Davis JK, Oikawa SY, Halson S, et al. In-season nutrition strategies and recovery modalities to enhance recovery for basketball players: a narrative review. Sports med. 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01606-7 

Calssmate 13:

Discussion: Nutrition Knowledge Survey 

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?RunningSoccerBasketball
At what level?RecreationalHigh school and ClubProfessional
How often do play or practice?Low range running: 3-4x per week     Cross-training: 1-2 x per weekHigh school: Practice: 3x per week Games: 2x per week   Club: 3-4x per week Games: 1-3x on weekends  Practice: 5x per week for 5-6 hours per day.
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?Yes. Two days prior full energy foods no restrictions. The day before no high fiber or dairy to avoid GI issues. The night before carb-based dinner. Morning of oatmeal w. bananas, chia seeds, brown sugar, almond milk, and coffee.No, however prior to a big game or tournament, consume a nutritious meal consisting of veggies, protein, and carbs and drink plenty of water.Yes. Always eats heavy meals before going to bed to compliment the body throughout, to be consistent with weight and metabolism. High fiber, high carbs, and protein shakes. 
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?Yes. Learned the importance of food as fuel for the body thus by adding more protein, as well as fiber.No. However only be mindful to eat more proteins and not a lot of carbs to have more energy.Yes, because practice is more strenuous and demanding on the physical body.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?Yes. It is hard to get all that our body needs from food alone.Yes. Gives more energy.Yes, to compliment missing protein.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?Nutrition was initially an undergrad major before changing to a health-based major. Always intrigued about what foods and how to better fuel the bodyMother, who is a personal trainer.Research on other professionals at the same level and also from an aunt who is a health coach.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?Yes. Focusing on healing and performance makes the body better at recovery and being strong.Yes, because having a correct diet and eating healthy before a big game will help improve performance considering you are feeding your body what it needs to function successfully.Yes, more energetic, focus. Do not feel fatigued, great improvement.

 Summary: The three athletes interviewed were from all different sports: running, soccer, and basketball. The levels were recreational, high school, and professional. Both the soccer player and runner practice three to four times a week, while the professional basketball player practices are more intense and demanding with five times a week for five to six hours per day. When it comes to diet, this plays a unique role, and all three athletes have a planned or special diet. While the soccer player does not explicitly have a planned diet, she drinks plenty of water to ensure she is adequately hydrated, especially the day before and day off games and tournaments.

Two of the three athletes have changed their diets since being involved in the sports. Some of the reasons given were the importance of food as fuel, being mindful of eating more protein, complimenting the body throughout with the missing nutrients, and maintaining consistency with weight and metabolism. The two food groups that both the runner and basketball player included were high fiber and carbs.

All three athletes included daily supplements. However, each athlete uses a different supplement. The runner takes multivitamins and cliff bars and adds electrolytes to her drinking water for fuel; however, she does not drink protein shakes. The soccer player also takes multivitamin iron supplements because of low iron and includes Celsius energy drinks for more energy, especially before games. The basketball player at the professional level eats protein bars, and drinks protein shakes daily to compliment any missing protein and maintain his weight. He does not take any vitamins but drinks herbal teas such as ginger and peppermint in the mornings.

It is essential to know that all three athletes are getting their information from certified people and are knowledgeable of proper nutrition. Because of her initial choice for undergrad, the runner has a sound foundation of what works. In comparison, the high school and basketball athletes are getting from a family member who knows nutrition. In addition, the professional athlete is also doing his research by looking at other players at his level and incorporating the same eating patterns. Interestingly, all athletes have found that the new way of eating has made a difference in their performance. However, each athlete’s focus was different—the runner focused on healing and performance, which makes the body recover better and the ability to be stronger. The soccer player also focused on performance, while the professional basketball player focused on energy and improvement. All the athletes pay close attention to what they eat because they know it can affect their sports performance.

Interpretation: All athletes must be aware of what and how they fuel their bodies. Food is vital to our body, and as an athlete, it serves more as fuel. The two methods used to optimize performance and improvements of athletes are an appropriate diet or using sports supplements.1 Eating and maintaining a proper diet is key to the success of any athlete. The level of sport will be more demanding and challenging; however, the basics are the same. An athlete’s goal is knowing what and when to eat certain foods. Preparing the body prior to games is essential. However, ensuring the body is adequately hydrated on game day is critical.

The two main macronutrients that athletes discuss are carbohydrates and protein. One of the main macronutrients addressed by the interviewees was carbohydrates. Athletes must consume sufficient carbohydrates after training because it helps the recovery process and restores glycogen depletion.2 The athletes who train more than once a day with high intensity should choose carbohydrates with a high glycemic index to accelerate muscle glycogen synthesis before the second training session. Foods such as pasta, chicken, and veggies are some of the foods eaten by the professional basketball player in between training. In agreement with the interviewee runner, Devrim-Lanpir and colleagues stated that exercise-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can significantly affect performance,3 so athletes must also develop strategies to address GI issues. Similarly, the runner refrains from dairy and other high-fiber foods prior to race day.

The most prominent topic discussed when it comes to macronutrients is proteins. Proteins play a unique role in anyone doing exercise or sport. Athletes ensure they are taking sufficient protein daily. All interviewees shared their need for having an adequate amount of protein. The consumption of an appropriate number of proteins, especially leucine, will lead to muscle mass synthesis.4 

The drink of choice for all the athletes is water. Januszko and Lange proved that 2% of dehydration could impair sports performance.1 All athletes must ensure they are adequately hydrated the day before, and especially the day of practice, game, race, or tournament. There are serious health outcomes such as heat exhaustion, heatstroke, or health illness with dehydration of four percent.5 It is important to know that the type of training plays a vital role in fluid loss.1 

While real food is the primary and best source of energy and fuel to the body, athletes such as the interviewees usually complement it with some supplements, from drinks to bars and other herbal supplements. Januszko and Lange noted that there are some supplements proven to influence strength, endurance, and body composition. Nevertheless, fueling the body with the proper nutrition and training will reap meaningful benefits overall.


1. Januszko P, Lange E. Nutrition, supplementation and weight reduction in combat sports: a review. AIMS Public Health. 2021;8(3):485-498. doi:10.3934/publichealth.2021038

 2. Artioli GG, Iglesias RT, Franchini E, Gualano B, Kashiwagura DB, Solis MY, et al. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.  Sports Sci. 2020; 28, 21–32. doi: 10.1080/02640410903428574

3. Devrim-Lanpir A, Hill L, Knechtle B. Efficacy of popular diets applied by endurance athletes on sports performance: beneficial or detrimental? A narrative review. Nutr. 2021; 13(2):491. doi:10.3390/nu13020491

4. Hector AJ, Phillips SM. Protein recommendations for weight loss in elite athletes: a focus on body composition and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018;1;28(2):170-177. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0273.

5. Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, Smith-Ryan A, Kleiner SM, Jäger R, et al. ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):38. doi:10.1186/s12970-018-0242-y.

Calssmate 14:

Interviewee #1Interviewee #2Interviewee #3
What sport do you play?BasketballSwimmingFootball
At what level?CollegeHighschoolHighschool
How often do play or practice?I play 2 games a week and practice 3-4 times a weekI have 2 swim meets a week and practice 3 times a weekI have 2 games a week and practice 4 times a week
Do you eat a planned or special diet regularly or prior to your event? If so, why, and what do you eat?I don’t eat a special diet, but I do eat certain things prior to my game such as high carbs 3-4 hours before my game.My diet is not specific, but I do include eating less carby meals before my swim meets. I also eat high fiber and protein meals. My main meal is at lunch and for dinner I have a protein shake.Prior to my games I like to eat what I call clean carbs. These make me energetic for my games and I don’t crash. My diet is not special but during the football season I like to bulk and eat high calories in the winter.
Have you changed your diet since the beginning of your involvement in this sport? If so, why?My diet has changed since starting basketball. I know eat more cleaner than I used to and have cut out fast food. Foods high in grease make me tired.Yes, my diet has changed when I joined the swim team. This is mostly due to a history of bloating issues. Having swim meets I wanted to ensure my bloating was minimal and I was supplying my body with enough foods that gave me energy.Since beginning football I did gain more weight due to the high caloric value. I am aiming to lean down this summer and get into a more consistent diet. I need to start doing more cardio and less weightlifting.
Do you regularly include any vitamins, protein drinks or bars, herbs, or any other type of supplements in your diet? If so, why?I do include vitamins daily which include vitamin C, D and I consume whey protein 3 times a day. If I am hungry, I will eat a protein bar instead of a sugary snack.The only vitamin I take is a Women’s multi vitamin. I also drink organic pea protein for breakfast mixed with spinach and celery.The only things I drink are protein shakes and no vitamins. The protein shake I do is whey protein in between my meals.
Where did you get your knowledge about your diet?I was recommended to talk to another basketball coach which specializes in helping students eat better and healthier for the court. The foods you eat are important, but I try to not let it control my everyday life because I still want to enjoy the foods I love.I did some research online to determine which foods can help not make me feel heavy during my swim meets. I also don’t like to eat before my swim meets.My friends tell me which foods are best for energy and which shakes help gain more muscle.
Do you feel this diet has altered your performance? If so, how?The changes in my diet have helped me stay more active within the game and gave me more energy after the game. Before playing I did not take my health seriously and did not drink adequate water intake. I know eating more protein and veggies has also made me more lean and ready to play on the court at any time. The changes in my diet have caused me to see a change in my body and performance. Before I did not believe in eating breakfast. My coach motivated me and made me understand it’s the most important meal of the day. Therefore, I always have a nutritional meal that helps me push through my practices and games.This diet has altered my performance because even though I am not at the weight I want to be I still feel good when I’m on the field. I eat clean three times a week and I am aiming to turn my eating habits around and cut out all sugary drinks.

Summary: Three athletes were interviewed to determine how their diet is impacted by the sport they play. While interviewing each athlete they each shared personal feelings against their nutritional journey. Both the basketball and football athlete showed how eating carbs can help fuel their bodies on the field and court.

Interpretation: When interviewing each athlete, it was evident that they all had one thing in common and that was feeling good with their nutritional choices aimed to their significant sport.Many individuals believe that the consumption of carbohydrates can lead to weight gain. The basketball player for instance eliminated the intake of fast food and greasy meals. Research has found that ingestion of high-fat diets relies higher on fat oxidation at rest and during exercise (Malgorzata et al., 2019). Also, both the basketball athlete and football athlete both consumed carbohydrates before their games to help increase performance. Carbohydrate consumption can elevate muscle glycogen content which can improve high intensity performance (Malgorzata et al., 2019). All three athletes also consumed a protein supplement for additional protein in their daily diet. Two types of supplements that were used were whey protein and pea protein. Research has investigated that swimmers who consumed whey protein against a control group who contained none; performance was not statistically significant (McKinlay et al., 2020). The only significance was a decrease in muscle soreness after 24 hours and an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10. Identifying key nutrients in the athletes’ diets can help improve their sport performance and overall nutrition.


Michalczyk, M. M., Chycki, J., Zajac, A., Maszczyk, A., Zydek, G., & Langfort, J. (2019). Anaerobic Performance after a Low-Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) Followed by 7 Days of Carbohydrate Loading in Male Basketball Players. Nutrients11(4), 778.

McKinlay, B. J., Theocharidis, A., Adebero, T., Kurgan, N., Fajardo, V. A., Roy, B. D., Josse, A. R., M Logan-Sprenger, H., Falk, B., & Klentrou, P. (2020). Effects of Post-Exercise Whey Protein Consumption on Recovery Indices in Adolescent Swimmers. International journal of environmental research and public health17(21), 7761.

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