This course explores the factors that impact the health of individuals, communities, and populations at the local, national, and global levels. Issues including public health, environmental health, emerging infectious diseases, and chronic illness will be explored, while incorporating societal and cultural issues.
Course Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to:
- Explain health and development within a global health context. (PLO)
- Demonstrate an understanding of global demographic and health determinants. (PLO)
- Identify global health challenges and issues. (PLO)
- Utilize the process of critical thinking to develop strategies for dealing with social and ethical dilemmas in delivering healthcare in low and middle resource settings. (PLO)
- Discuss the major communicable and noncommunicable disease burdens impacting global health. (PLO)
- Discuss programmatic approaches to specific global health issues. (PLO)
Welcome to: Global and Community-Based Nursing
This subject introduces you to the foundational principles of epidemiology and the processes utilized to perform a health assessment on a community as “client.” Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in populations. Today, public health science of epidemiology has made major contributions to the understanding of all possible factors that contribute to health and disease in all its forms. This understanding makes up the framework for the practice of nursing in public health. This topic will focus on basic epidemiological models that nurses use to assess the dimensions of health in a community. What do you already know about assessing aspects of health in a community setting? You will apply the nursing process steps of assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation to a community. The Community Health Nurse’s assessment creates an understanding of the community at the individual, family, and group levels in order to solve identified problems. Tools that are utilized to study a community include Windshield Surveys, data from Healthy People 2030, data from sites such as City-Data.com, and local hospitals Community Assessments.
ASSIGNMENT: Writer, please respond with your feedback/viewpoint to the below written short essays written by my classroom peers. This is part of a classroom discussion. There are 2 essays from the above courses. Respond with 100-150 words for each essay with 2 intext citations and 2 references APA 7th (no later than 5 years old) edition for each essay response. I ordered 300 words and 4 sources. Thank you.
ESSAY by T.
A recent communicable outbreak was a listeria outbreak that has been found to be linked to ice cream. Public health officials interviewed those who got sick and found that all reported eating ice cream called Big Olaf Creamery or having ice cream at restaurants that served Big Olaf Creamery ice cream. Big Olaf Creamery ice cream was sold and served to retailers, restaurants and senior homes in Florida and one location in Ohio. There has been a recall on the ice cream with variety of sizes that have dates with the expiration dates through June 30, 2022. The reported illness started around January 24, 2021 through June 12, 2022. As of July 13, 2022, there have been 23 cases of the illnesses, 22 hospitalized, and 1 death. The number of cases included those who have traveled to Florida visiting from other states who are sick connected to the listeria outbreak. The age range of reported illness were from age less than 1 to 92 years. Those who are at high risks include pregnant women, individuals 65 years of age and older and those with weakened immune system (Centers for Disease Control, 2022).
L. monocytogenes is the bacteria of the listeria species that is associated causing a food-borne disease (listeriosis) and found in contaminated food. There are different clinical symptoms that can be presented based on the individual’s immune system. For those who are healthy and are affected with listeriosis may be asymptomatic or present with flu-like symptoms with muscle pain and weakness or acute gastroenteritis including diarrhea and fever. Those who are at high risk, such those with weak immune system may have symptoms such as hepatitis, pancreatitis, meningoencephalitis and even death. As for pregnant women, placentitis, fetal infection and possibility of abortion or stillbirth may occur (Lanni et al., 2022). Symptoms may start on the same day as eating contaminated food with listeria or as late as 70 days after, but usually it starts within two weeks after (Centers for Disease Control, 2022).
Listeria outbreak can be prevented with food safety handling protocols being followed strictly. Those who are handling and working with the process of producing the ice cream or food products containing raw milk should be following food safety handling protocol at all time to prevent any cross contamination. This includes washing hands and cleaning and sanitizing all food handling areas and tools utilized in processing the ice cream. Also, testing of the product of contamination before releasing the final product would also prevent an outbreak. As listeria is found in raw milk and the specific L. monocytogenes (listeria species) has been found through the various stages of production in the milk processing environments causing a high chance of cross contamination. Therefore, it is important for food handlers to have three significant key factors, which are knowledge, attitude and practice. Effective strategies to control listeriosis are reinforcement of food handling awareness, food safety education, regulation and food trade for food handlers (Borena et al., 2022).
Borena, B. M., Dilgasa, L., Gebremedhin, E. Z., Sarba, E. J., Marami, L. M., Kebede, A. K., & Nega, D. T. (2022). Listeria species occurrence and associated risk factors and antibiogram of listeria monocytogenes in milk and milk products in Ambo, Holeta and Bako towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Veterinary Medicine International, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5643478
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Listeria outbreak linked to ice cream. https://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/monocytogenes-06-22/index.html
Lanni, L., Morena, V., Marchese, A. S., Destro, G., Ferioli, M., Catellani, P., & Giaccone, V. (2022). Challenge test as special tool to estimate the dynamic of listeria moncytogenes and other foodborne pathogens. Foods, 11(1), 32. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010032
ESSAY by A.
Coronavirus disease is an infectious respiratory illness that was first detected in 2019. The World Health Organization called the disease COVID-19, that is, Coronavirus Disease 2019. The outbreak of the disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, after which it spread worldwide as citizens of different nations travelled in and out of China. It is assumed that the virus causing COVID-19 might have originated from an animal but now spreads among humans (VDI, 2020). The virus spreads mainly through close contact with infected persons through respiratory droplets when they sneeze or cough.
Also, one can contract the virus through contact with an object or surface with the virus and then touching their nose, eyes, or mouth. Covid-19 patients display mild to severe symptoms. Some of the symptoms include cough, fever, fatigue, headache, and difficulty in breathing. However, some patients may experience diarrhea before fever development. In severe cases, patients display organ dysfunction, for example, acute cardiac injury or even death (Zu et al., 2020). It is essential to note that patients with pre-existing health conditions are at higher risk of developing severe symptoms or death.
There is no specific treatment for the disease; however, antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments such as remdesivir, Ritonavir, and Lopinavir have been used. Patients with the disease must quarantine or isolate, cover their sneezes or cough, and frequently disinfect touched surfaces and objects (Jiang et al., 2020). Recommended COVID-19 prevention measures include reducing close contact by avoiding crowded places, early detection and diagnosis, personal hygiene and proper sterilization of shared spaces, using protection methods like masks, eye or facial protection, and use of gloves (Ouassou et al., 2020). Also, specialized health workers should be assigned to deal with patients to minimize transmission between health workers and patients
Jiang, F., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Cai, Y., Cheung, C. W., & Xia, Z. (2020). Review of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35(5), 1545-1549. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05762-w
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N. E., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., … & Bnouham, M. (2020). The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): evaluation and prevention. Journal of Immunology Research, 2020. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2020/1357983/
VDI, C. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Zu, Z. Y., Di Jiang, M., Xu, P. P., Chen, W., Ni, Q. Q., Lu, G. M., & Zhang, L. J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China. Radiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233368/
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