Contemporary consumers are faced with many different choice options
when they want to consume music. For example, as witnessed by the
following website, Amazon sells both CDs, vinyl records, music
downloads, and music streaming:
Other options for music consumption include radio-stations, concerts, etc.

Task 1:

• a) In his seminal article about Marketing Myopia, Levitt1 states the
following: “An industry begins with the customer and his needs, not
with a patent, a raw material, or a selling skill.” Please explain what
Levitt means by this and discuss if and how it applies to the music
consumption industry.
• b) Choose at least three different options for music consumption
(e.g., listening to CDs versus listening to streamed music) and
explain which needs they might serve for different types of

Task 2:

Based on your answers to task 1 and the course materials, discuss which
type of decision-making process two different types of consumers might
engage in when deciding when, where, and how to purchase music-related
products or services2.
In your answer, please apply at least the following concepts: High/low
involvement decision- making and classic/loyalty consumer journey.
Further, include at least two other concepts and/or models from the course
materials in your discussion3.
In your answer, please give specific examples of the decision-making
behaviour that the two types of consumers engage in when deciding
between different music consumption options. Also, make sure to describe
the two types of consumers in relevant terms before discussing their
decision- making process.
1 Levitt, Theodore (1960). Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review, Jul/Aug60, Vol.
38 Issue 4, p.55.
2 In your answer, please assume that the consumer has access to the technology required
to access music, e.g., smartphone & internet for streaming, radio for radio-listening, CD
player for CD records, etc.
3 Please state explicitly which additional concepts and/or models you include in your

Task 3:

Based on your knowledge about the cultural movement of meaning of
consumer goods4 please answer the following questions:
o What relevant consumption rituals related to music consumption can
you identify? o Why would consumers engage in ritual behaviour in this
o Based on your analysis of these questions, what do you deem the most
implications for marketers of music-related products or services?
4 See your textbook and McCracken, Grant (1986). Culture and consumption. Journal of
Consumer Research, 13 (June), pp. 71-84.

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