• Identify the different parts of the thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilages, epiglottis, and hyoid bone.
  • Describe the movements of the cricothyroid joints and the cricoarytenoid joints.
  • What are the five layers of the vocal folds? Which layers are considered the body, and which are considered the cover?
  • Identify the ligaments and membranes of the larynx.
  • Know all the intrinsic, extrinsic, and supplementary muscles of the larynx and what they do.
  • Describe vocal fold abduction, adduction, and lengthening, including the muscles involved in these actions.
  • Describe the movements of the ventricular folds, epiglottis, and laryngeal housing.
  • Discuss the five laryngeal control variables (laryngeal opposing pressure, laryngeal airway resistance, glottal size and configuration, stiffness of the vocal folds, and effective mass of the vocal folds).
  • Describe the neural innervation of the larynx (including intrinsic, extrinsic, and supplementary muscles).
  • What are four major functions of the larynx?
  • Describe how the larynx produces transient and sustained turbulence noise.
  • Describe vocal fold vibration. Use hand-drawn images to illustrate your description.
  • Discuss the aeromechanical and tissue forces that cause the vocal folds to vibrate.
  • What is the primary mechanism for changing fundamental frequency? What are secondary mechanisms for changing fundamental frequency?
  • How do the respiratory system, laryngeal apparatus, and pharyngeal-oral apparatus contribute to the sound pressure level of the voice?
  • Describe a typical fundamental frequency – sound pressure level profile.
  • What is the voice source spectrum and what is its perceptual correlate?
  • Describe how the modal, pulse, and loft registers differ from one another.
  • Why is the larynx sometimes described as an articulator?
  • List some of the major structural and functional changes to the larynx that occur during development and aging.
  • How does laryngeal function for speech production change with age?
  • List some sex-related differences in laryngeal structure and function.
  • What is unilateral vocal fold paralysis and how does it affect voice production?

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