Part I:  Multiple Choice Questions

Which region of Sub Saharan Africa is where the oldest human remain is unearthed?

            •           Eastern region

            •            Western Region

            •            Southern Region

            •            Northern Region

The human and cultural landscape of Africa is primarily not influenced by

            •            Indigenous heritage

            •           Islamic heritage

            •           Asian heritage

            •            Western influence

The period of Cradle of human race is characterized

            •           Human settlement, domestication and establishment of local trade

            •           Bantu Migration

            •            Stateless organization of along kinships or tribes

            •           Empire development

Which of the following is correct about Sudanic empire?

            •           Islam was important organizing philosophy

            •            Realization of Great Swahili city known as Mombasa

            •           Mark the beginning of structured political arrangement in SSA

            •           The formation of the State of Mogadishu

Which of the following (s) is/are correct with regard to Western influence on spread of Islam in SSA?

            •            Kingdom establishment by Islam preachers to spread Islam to interior Africa.

            •            Brought education that detached Africans from their traditional way of life.

            •           Spurred adoration toward Christian and western way of life in a sharp contrast to Islam.

            •           Turning the continent as source of workers for their plantations

Islam influenced indigenous culture of SSA through

            •            Enhancing sense of Pan-African nationalism

            •            Spurring efforts of decolonization and resistance against western influence

            •           New religion, language, education system, food choice and dressing pattern

            •           None of the above

Which of the following is correct about the nature of Europeans initial contact with Africa?

            •           Contact was made in an effort to find alternative route to their market in India.

            •           Contact was made to penetrate into African interior for evangelism.

            •           Contact was made in search of raw material for European industry.

            •           All of the above

One of the following countries lost all its African colonies following the First World War.

            •            Portugal

            •           Italy

            •           German

            •            Netherlands

Which of the following European country does not have African colony?

            •            Portugal

            •           Italy

            •           German

            •            Netherlands

A precursor (s) for African colonization is/are

            •           A need for steady supply of workers for European plantation in America

            •           A need for steady supply of raw materials for European industry

            •           A need for alternative secured trade route to markets in Arabia and Asia

            •           All of the above

Which of the following (s) is/are socio-economic legacy of European colonization?

            •           African dual economy sector with one sector exclusively targeting export while the other mainly target domestic market.

            •           Under-developed and marginalized economy of Africa

            •            Subordinated African economy in the world market

            •           All of the above

Which of the following (s) is/are contributed to decolonization of SSA?

            •           Indian independence in 1947

            •           Civil –right movement in USA

            •           Ethio-Italian war in 1936

            •           All of the above

The first decolonized SSA country

            •           Kenya

            •           Ghana

            •           Angola

            •            Zimbabwe

Youngest African nation

            •            Somalia

            •           South Sudan

            •            Comoros

            •            Madagascar

Environmental determinism is a theory that

            •            Suggests physical environment is determinants for cultural development

            •            Explains why there is high development in Africa

            •           Human choice shaped African culture

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is incorrect about Sub-Saharan African culture?

            •           Varies from region to region

            •            Dynamic over time

            •           There are intriguing similarities between cultural traits (elements)

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is an example(s) of cultural diffusion through relocation?

            •           Spread of islam

            •           Swahili cities along eastern coastline of Africa.

            •           Bantu migration

            •           All of the above

Contagious diffusion is a reason for

            •           Spread of Islam

            •           Spread of language

            •           Show time-distance decay in cultural dynamics

            •           All of the above

A barrier caused by Sahara Desert to further spread of Muslim to southern and central Africa is an example (s) of

            •            Physical barrier

            •            Cultural barrier

            •            Biological barrier

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is correct about cultural barrier to diffusion?

            •           Nomad way of life to urban way of life

            •           Sahara Desert to the migration of Arab to SSA

            •            Tropical rainforest to Pygmies

            •           All of the above

An example(s) that culture may not involve a complete assimilation

            •           English language spoken by Africans

            •            Worshiping style of African Christian

            •           Post-colonial government structure in Sub-Saharan Africa

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is true about Christian religion in Africa?

            •            Christian is younger than Islam

            •           Spread to south and central Africa came after African colonization

            •           It follows the teaching and manifestation of Prophet Mohammed

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is true about Muslim religion in Africa?

            •            Dominant religion in northern Africa

            •           African Muslim is mainly Shia sect

            •            Undergone considerable change through the influences of other African religion

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is incorrect about African family relation?

            •            Marriage is a union between 2 individuals

            •           Bride wealth is a price of a bride

            •           Several cultures permit Polygamy

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is true about African culture?

            •           There are 40 different languages spoken in Africa

            •           most languages have their own alphabet

            •            language is a unifying factor

            •           A key factor that maintains sense of identity

Which of the following is incorrect about communal land tenure?

            •           Land belongs to village or community

            •           Head of a village is in charge of the land

            •           Alien (foreign) have the same access to land as community members

            •           All of the above

Which of the following is (are) correct about state land?

            •           Land nationalized by State

            •            Unoccupied land which state assume the right to allocate

            •            Relatively more common land tenure system in eastern and southern Africa

            •           All of the above

Which of the following (s) are not the characteristics of SSA’s political landscape Prior to 1990s?

            •            Prevalence of military coup d’états

            •           One party state and perpetual leader

            •           Democratization and economic development

            •           All of the above

Which of the following (s) is/are examples of conflict due to incompatibility of Islam and western or traditional based government?

            •           Tribal conflicts in Somalia

            •           Ethio-Eritrean war

            •            Conflict between north and South Sudan

            •           All of the above

Which of the following (s) conflict (s) in Africa is/are not legacy of European balkanization of Africa with no regard to ethnic affiliation?

            •           Nigeria – Cameroon conflict over Bakassi Peninsula

            •            Ethiopia – Somalia war over Ogaden

            •            Conflict between north and South Sudan

            •           All of the above

Legacy of poorly defined Military role in African political landscapes often resulted in

            •           Several military coups

            •            Africa’s socialisms

            •            Africa’s charismatic leaders

            •            Africa’s God-like leaders

African Capitalism did not deliver economic growth is/are because of

            •           Its socialistic nature

            •           Gain is highly concentrated in the hand of few economic elites

            •            Charismatic leader whose perform ace declined with age

            •           All of the above

African Socialism did not bring anticipated political stability because of

            •           Lack of support from Western world and its financial arm

            •           They were implemented by military leaders who lack the administrative skills

            •            Resistance from the traditional chiefs

            •           All of the above

An example (s) of African leader with God-like figure

            •           Kwame Nkrumah

            •           Julius Nyerere

            •           Mobutu Sesseseko

            •           Haile Selassie

 (A) Promising trend (s) of African political stability emerging since 1990s include 9s)?

            •            Increasing democratization, and freedom of multi-party in African countries

            •            Africa’s emerging competitive advantage in new global economy i.e., Globalization

            •            Growing countries that are synchronizing the traditional and Muslim government models

            •           The emergence of Muslim democracy as a new political reality

The model of hybrid traditional-western government structure is consisted by

            •           Lower and upper house consisted of elected parliamentarians

            •           Council of tribal Chief along with democratically elected parliament

            •           Upper house consisted of the council of elected or appointed tribal Chiefs that do not stand for election

            •           All of the above

Which of the following does not characterize African population dynamics?

            •           high birth rate

            •           low death rate

            •           high dependency ratio

            •           high growth rate

            •           none of the above

The most populated SSA

            •           Nigeria

            •            Ethiopia

            •           Egypt

            •           Kenya

Which of the following is the most populated region of SSA?

            •            Northern Africa

            •            Southern Africa

            •            Western Africa

            •           Eastern Africa

            •           Central Africa

Physiological density (ies) is/are

            •           Ratio of a number of people living in a unit area

            •           Ratio of population to arable land

            •           Ratio of farming population to arable land

            •           All of the above

Which of the following(s) correct about fertility rate in SSA?

            •           fertility rate increases with level of education

            •           fertility rate is higher among rural resident

            •           above average fertility rate in the middle and southern Africa

            •           all of the above

Southern African countries have below average fertility rate because

            •            Sexually transmitted disease

            •           Better Family planning program

            •            Postpartum Abstinence

            •           All of the above

Which of the following(s) attribute(s) of African marriage culture enhances higher fertility rate?

            •            marriage is at early stage

            •           Male dominated family structure

            •           child fosterage

            •           all of the above

Which of the following(s) is not cultural determinant of fertility that constraint(s) fertility rate?

            •            virginity enforced until marriage

            •            practice of postpartum female sexual abstinence

            •            polygamy

            •           All of the above

Which of the following(s) is/are not responsible for higher mortality rate in SSA?

            •            Drought and famine

            •            Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV

            •           Civil war

            •           None of the above

The decline of the Mortality rate in recent years are attributed to improvements in

            •           Health care

            •            sanitation, and nutrition standard and

            •           massive vaccine campaigns

            •           all of the above

The demographic transition model that describes the state of population dynamics in countries of the SSA is?

            •           late expanding stage

            •           high expanding stage

            •           low stationary state

            •           high stationary state

SSA population pyramid depict

            •           higher ratio of female to male

            •           higher ratio of male to female

            •           higher ratio young to adult

            •           higher ration of adult to young

For SSA, emigration is sometimes considered advantageous. Which of the following(s) is/are regarded as advantage (s) of emigration to source country?

            •           Brain gain – skilled labor provision

            •           Relief of pressure on job market

            •           Brain drains

            •           All of the above

Which of the following country is among the major source of refugee in SSA?

            •            Somalia

            •           Kenya

            •           Ghana

            •           Senegal

Reason (s) for political instability in SSA prior to 1990s.

            •           The prevalence of military coup d’états.

            •            Presence of charismatic leaders

            •           Leader with God-like figures

            •           All of the above

Major types of ethnic and civil arrest in SSA is a result(s) of

            •            Devolution of state

            •            Colonial legacy

            •           One party dictatorship

            •           All of the above

Part II: True and False

Early medieval civilization is restricted to southern and southeastern Africa.  

It is during late medieval period, through Bantu migration, that civilization introduced to central and western sub-Saharan Africa.

European colonization has played significant role in mitigating the spread of Islam in SSA.

Off all the three triple heritages that shaped the culture and human landscape of Africa, the influence of Islam the strongest and most pervasive.

The first European contact of SSA was deliberate in search for labors or workers for their plantations in America.

The legislation against slave trade was first passed by Portuguese parliament.

It was the Royal navy of United Kingdom that enforced the law banning criminalizing slave trade as an act of piracy.

Bilateral kinship system is dominant system of family lineage where ties and descents are traced through both mother and father.

Divorce is infrequent in Africa, due to family intervention and traditional conflict resolution mechanism that is in place.

African culture is under tremendous stress due to influences of westernization and realities of global changes.

An old age is the desirable age as African view it with dignity and respect because it is considered as time of wisdom, honor and teaching.

African tradition of kin obligation, which requires extending privilege and favor to kin, is acceptable, though this is identified as nepotism in western culture.

In African culture, reciprocity of the act of serving and expecting in return from beneficiary is regarded as bribery and corruption.

African continent is regarded as fertile region to study political geography; because it is consisted of many countries as compared with continents like North America, Europe or Latin America.

Prior to early 1990s Sub-Saharan African countries are known for political stability and marked economic development.

African leaders are seldom come to power through democratic process, and yet there are times when those acquire the power democratically, turn into dictatorship, ban opposition parties and suppress individual freedom.

In Sub-Saharan African countries, military coup d’états often intervened with a hope of improving the situation when elected governments fail to deliver public expectations placed.

Sub-Saharan African countries may dig themselves out of the political chaos and instability if they embrace democracy and elect competent, committed and honest leaders, who put the nation’s interest ahead of their personal one.

SSA’s population is distributed in such a way that major settlement areas are Sahel region extending from Senegal to Mogadishu, west central rainforest region, and semi-arid region of southwestern Africa.

In demographic transition model, higher stationary state is characterized by higher mortality rate and declined fertility rate.

In SSA, East and West African countries have above average fertility rate while middle and southern African countries have below average fertility rate.

Refugee right is an inherent right of individual who have well-founded fear of being persecuted for reason of race, religion, nationality and membership of a particular social group or political opinion.

Most SSA migration is intra-continental that the majority of countries experience net immigration than emigration.

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