Describe the five patterns of knowledge and how they can be applied in nursing practice.
The five patterns of knowledge in the nursing profession are not entirely distinct but somewhat interrelated. These patterns are;
Empirical knowledge is also known as science. It is used to develop theoretical explanations and also give the facts in the nursing profession. This knowledge has been used in the nursing profession since the era of Nightingale. Nurses apply the pattern through believing the only reliable and valid knowledge is factual, descriptive, objective, and generalizable. Nurses use this pattern to understand areas such as specific diseases are caused by particular facts and therefore require particular care.
Ethics knowledge is the second pattern of knowledge. The pattern emphasizes more on what ought to be done or simply the matters of obligation. It’s the code that guides nurses on how to make moral choices and to take responsibility for their decisions. For example, if a pregnant woman that is seeking abortion services approaches a nurse, then the nurse should make ethical choices regardless.
The third pattern of knowledge is esthetic knowledge. Also known as art. The knowledge helps the nurses to make decisions based on what the patients need. It is the ability to put yourself in someone’s shoes. Being compassionate and participating in the patient’s experiences and feelings. The pattern is used to get a history of the patient to give personalized care as opposed to general care.
Personal knowing knowledge. The pattern develops when a nurse tries to take the patient, not as a non-living object or diagnosis but instead seeks to establish a personal relationship between them. Knowing can be experimental, interpersonal, or intuitive. Nurses use this pattern to know their patients and understand them more.
Social, political knowledge. This is the fifth knowledge pattern in nursing. The pattern states there are two levels of knowing a patient. One is the social, political level (this is between patient and nurse) and secondly social-political level in the context of the profession. Health is mainly affected by social, political issues such as poverty, unemployment, alienation, etc. Therefore, a nurse should understand such situations before offering care. The pattern has been mainly used to offer voluntary services in areas experiencing such issues.
Summarize the main points of Jean Watson’s theory of human caring, including the 10 creative factors.
According to Watson, the theory of Human Caring states that, “humans cannot be treated as objects and that humans cannot be separated from self, other, nature, and the larger workforce.” The theory explains everything about the nursing profession. The theory pays much attention to the interpersonal relationships and processes between the caregivers and the patients.
It mainly focuses on human caring. According to Watson, although caregivers might think that the disease has been cured, the illness remains if care was not given ultimately (Watson & Woodward, 2010). She, therefore, states that in the end, health won’t be attained at all.
The theory makes seven assumptions. That caring can only be demonstrated effectively interpersonally, that caring has creative factors which in the end lead to human satisfaction, Proper care translates into health and growth of the family, that caring is accepting patients as they are now and how they will be later, that a caring environment allows the care recipient choose the best action for themselves, that caring is complementary to curing and that caring is vital to nursing. The theory has majorly dealt with four concepts that are; environment, society, nursing, and human being.
The theory is also built on the following ten creative factors.
Embrace. Practicing the altruistic values of kindness, love within yourself, and others.
Inspiring the faith and hope of the patients while at the same time respecting it.
Trusting others and yourself while also nurturing the trust and beliefs of the patients
Nurturing, helping to trust caring relationships
Forgiving, being ready to accept positive and negative attitudes
Deepen; coming up with scientific problem-solving methods
Balancing; learning to understand personal need
Co-create; creating a healing environment both physical and spiritual
Minister; address the physical, spiritual and human needs
Open; allow miracles to happen as well as believe in miracles
Determine how Jean Watson views the following patterns of knowledge:
Empirical knowledge (the science)
She views this knowledge as the one obtained from research and other objective facts. She also views it as mainly the general laws and theories (Watson J., 2006). She also views it like the knowledge that is employed through using evidence-based practices
Esthetic knowledge (the art)
She sees this knowledge as an art of discovering something new in the profession of nursing. She also sees it as the knowledge of having an intimate understanding of the patient and sharing their experiences.
Ethical knowing (what constitutes right actions for that patient)
She sees this knowledge pattern as the one that helps nurses to understand what is wrong or right, helps them make moral decisions and take responsibilities of their action. It is the code of ethics of nurses that guides them.
Personal knowing (nurse-patient relationship)
She views this pattern of knowledge as the one that helps caregivers to know themselves and the care receivers. She acknowledges that this knowledge is obtained by having personal relationships between the nurse, patient, and the patients’ family. It is obtained through observation, self-actualization, and reflection.
Explain which pattern(s) are more evident or easier to apply in Watson’s theory of human caring, citing specific examples to support your explanation.
The pattern of ethical knowing is more evident and easier to use in the nursing profession. This is because there is an already laid out code ethics to follow. Nurses that fail to uphold the code of ethic face harsh consequences such as dismissal from service. The pattern is also easier to follow, as it is conscience-driven. You do what you know is right. For example, if a nurse has a very stubborn patient that is keen on ending their life by failing to take medicine or follow simple rules, the nurse is at liberty and morally correct to use considerable force to the client.
The pattern of personal knowledge is also very much applicable. A nurse is supposed to create personal relationships with the patient and the patient’s family. In most cases, nurses keep patient’s data for follow up.
Watson, J. (2006). Caring theory as an ethical guide to administrative and clinical practices. In JONA’S healthcare law, ethics, and regulation (pp. 8(3), 87-93.).
Watson, J., & Woodward, T. K. (2010). Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing theories and nursing practice (pp. 3, 351-369.).
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