Statistics,

Each of the below questions are in parts.  First, you will have to decide what data analyses are required and employ SPSS statistical package to explore and analyze the data.  The data is available to you on Blackboard.  After accomplishing your analyses, interpret the results and draw some inferences from the data.  This interpretation with your inferences must be presented in the form of a “Results” section.  In your “Results” sections, you must include a cogent discussion of your analyses (e.g., effect size, power, statistical significance, as applicable) and your inferences.  Inclusion of specific descriptive data tables will be expected.  Three to seven pages, double-spaced should be adequate to capture this information.  You are reminded that I will grade only your work and that this is an independent assignment.

The data set you will use for this examination is the math.sav file.

SITUATION

A researcher is concerned about several recent studies regarding students’ participation in and successful completion of Algebra and its predictive ability of going to college.  The researcher did a literature review and discovered that they were several things that appear to influence participation in and successful completion of Algebra.  Based on this literature review, the researcher deductively established a problem statement of “Method of math instruction influences the Algebra final grade.”  The researcher’s specific hypothesis is “The metacognitive method of math instruction influences higher final Algebra grades than the lecture method of math instruction.”

1. First, look at your data and report on missing data, skewness and kurtosis.  Based on this information, report whether or not you have concerns about conducting the analysis and why (turn in your output) (10 points).
2. Select and conduct the appropriate analysis (turn in your output) (5 points).
3. Interpret your output in a “Results” section as described above (see rubric; 90 points).

A colleague of the educational researcher reviewed the results and looked at it from a different perspective.  The colleague believed that final Algebra grades could be predicted by the student’s attitude toward math prior to instruction.  Also based on the literature, the researcher knows that previous math performance influences the final grade in Algebra.  The colleague further believed that the pre-instruction attitude toward math would account for variance over and above previous math performance and method of math instruction.  The colleague hypothesized that “While accounting for previous math performance and method of math instruction, pre-instruction attitude toward math accounts for additional statistically significant variance in final Algebra grades.

1. Select and conduct the appropriate analysis (turn in your output) (5 points).
2. Interpret your output in a “Results” section as described above (see rubric; 90 points).

Rubric

Results Section

Excerpt from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition (p. 20, 2001): The Results section summarizes the data collected and the statistical or data analytic treatment used. Report the data in sufficient detail to justify the conclusions. Mention all relevant results, including those that run counter to the hypothesis. Do not include individual scores or raw data, with the exception, for example, of single-case designs or illustrative samples. Discussing the implications of the results is not appropriate here. [But inferences can be made along with significance.]

Excerpt from Writing a Scholarly Report. “Results” – Present a summary of what you found in the results section. Here you should describe the techniques that you used, each analysis and the results of each analysis. Start with a description of any complications, such as protocol violations and missing data that may have occurred. Examine your data for anomalies, such as outliers, points of high influence, miscoded data, and illogical responses. Use your common sense to evaluate the quality of your data and make adjustments if need be. Describe the process that you used in order to assure your readers that your editing was appropriate and purified rather than skewed your results.

With today’s availability of statistical packages, it is fairly easy to use very sophisticated techniques to analyze your data. Understand the techniques you are using and the statistics that you are reporting. Try to use the simplest, appropriate technique for which you can meet the underlying assumptions. If you are going to use inferential statistics, you should determine the power a priori based on your anticipated distribution, design, and definition of practical significance. This information must stem from your related literature and not the data that you collected. If you fail to reach statistical significance, then this analysis can be used to show that the finding does not stem from low power.

Where appropriate, compute and report effect sizes or, at a minimum, be sure you provide enough information so effect sizes can be computed. Effect sizes provide a common metric for evaluating results across studies and aid in the design of future studies. They will be needed by anyone who attempts a quantitative synthesis of your study along with the others in your area of research. For most research reports, the results should provide the summary details about what you found rather than an exhaustive listing of every possible analysis and every data point. Use carefully planned tables

and graphs. While tables and graphs should be self-explanatory, do not include a table or graph unless it is discussed in the report. Limit them to those that help the reader understand your data as they relate to the investigated problem. (Also, see Wilkinson (1999) article located on Blackboard.)

Tables and Figures                                                                                                   25 points

Means and standard deviations

Bivariate correlation

Other tables as deemed necessary

Statistical Presentation                                                                                             50 points

Effect size

Power

Statistical significance

Degrees of Freedom

Analyses used

Inferences                                                                                                                 15 points

What does your analyses inform you of?

Does your analyses support or not support the hypotheses?

BONUS QUESTION

The data set you will use for this question is the donate.sav file located on Blackboard.  Also if you request, I will email this file to you.  You will not be able to read this file on computers without SPSS installed.  In fact, the file will not look as you normally see a SPSS file.  However, if you do not have SPSS installed you may still move this file to a disk to take to a computer that has SPSS installed.  The donate.sav file includes the following variables:

SITUATION

A health professional is concerned about why people donate blood and why they do not. The health professional knows that the only way a definitive answer could be provided is through a true experimental design. The health professional does a random sample of subjects and place them into three (3) treatment groups with 40 in each group and gathers information about them to include some measures of internal state. The first group is the control group, the second group is provided an information session, and the third group is provided an information session and a video. Prior to conducting the experimental investigation, the health professional wants to know if the three groups are different on individual measures of internal states. These internal states are measures of perspective taking, fantasy, empathy, distress, and altruism. Taking into consideration that this is a random sample with equal number of subjects, the health professional believes that there will be no statistically significant difference between the groups at alpha level .05. The health professional tests the null hypothesis that there is a difference between the three groups on individual measures of internal state.

Select and conduct the appropriate analysis (turn in your output) (10 points).

Interpret your output in a “Results” section as described above (see rubric; 90 points).

Rubric

Tables and Figures                                                                                                  20 points

Means and standard deviations

Bivariate correlation

Other tables as deemed necessary

Statistical Presentation                                                                                             45 points

Effect size

Power

Statistical significance

Degrees of Freedom

Analyses used

Inferences                                                                                                                25 points

What does your analyses inform you of?

Does your analyses support or not support the hypotheses?

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