Chapters 1 – 3 (5 pts each)

  1. Of the four philosophical worldviews, which do you think is more appropriate for your field or discipline and why?
  2. ‘Correlation does not imply causality’. Do you agree with this statement? Why? Why not?
  3. How would you calculate whether or not your test was reliable?

Chapters 4 – 6 (15 pts)

Homework Directions: Read the following research scenario. Select a hypothesis and the most appropriate statistical procedure to answer the research question. The statistical procedure must include its strengths and weaknesses with how you will address the weaknesses.

The Relationship between Teacher Behaviors and Pupil Outcomes

This large-scale study into the effects of teacher behaviors on achievement in mathematics was carried out in primary schools in England (Muijs and Reynolds, 2002). As part of this study, over 100 teachers were observed each year, and their pupils given a standardized mathematics test at the start and the end of the year.  The observation schedules used contained a number of sections: observers gave a descriptive account of the lesson, noting the content and the main events throughout. They also noted whether the activity could be described as group work, individual work, whole-class lecture style teaching or whole-class interactive teaching (transitions between parts of the lesson and admin were also noted). They scanned the classroom every five minutes and counted the number of pupils on and off task. Following the lesson, observers completed a rating scale noting the occurrence of over 50 distinct teacher behaviors.

It was found that a large range of teacher behaviors were positively related to achievement in mathematics. These behaviors were also related to one another, forming an ‘effective teaching’ construct. Being taught by the most as opposed to the least effective teacher could make up to 20 per cent difference in test scores at the end of the year, considering scores at the start of the year and pupil background. It was also found that in classrooms where more whole-class interactive teaching was used teachers engaged in higher levels of effective behaviors than in classrooms where more individual work was used. Group work was seldom used in the classrooms observed, notwithstanding its positive effects where it was observed.

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