Response #1

Does age matter in explaining whether teen sex is wrong or not?  Older people tend to agree more that it is always wrong for the younger generation to have sex because they have lived through the expirence in the past and know the risky consequences of pregnancy or STD’s that could occur.  For these reasons, we might expect the older generation more likely to report “always wrong” in comparison to those who are younger. There seems to be some support for our hypothesis given that those who are older (M=52.1) are more likely to report that teensex is“always wrong” in comparison to the people that are younger (M=42.6) reporting that it is “not wrong at all”.  While observing this 9 year difference in average age between groups, it is determined that it is statistically significant (F=19.8, df=3, p<.001).  While average differences in age shows statistical significance for older people to be more likely to be against teensex than younger people in 2018, this survey should be monitored in the future.  Questions such as, “Is the reason for opposition because of previous experience?”, or “Do you think teensex would be okay if contraceptives were provided?”.  This would broaden the focus for the survey to see if older adults would still remain with the same option if there was less of a risk for disease or pregnancy. This will provide for valid measurement data and let the respondents answer with measurement validity.  On the other hand for younger respondents that are for teensex, there are popular television shows on TLC that share young teens having sex before marriage and becoming pregnant.  It is important to look at this issue because most of these teen girls are still in school, don’t have a stable job, or don’t have support from the child’s father due to not being married.  The lives impacted by these issues are the teenage mother, the father, the grandparents of the baby, and the child itself.  By improving this survey, people can provide these questions in schools to the younger generations to have more of a focused group of respondents that this topic is about. 

Group Descriptives
AGE ALMST ALWAYS WRG 257 48.2 17.7 1.105 
  ALWAYS WRONG 875 52.1 16.9 0.570 
  NOT WRONG AT ALL 132 42.6 15.6 1.361 
  SOMETIMES WRONG 245 45.6 17.9 1.141 
  One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)                       F df1 df2 p AGE   19.8   3   414   < .001    

Does age matter in explaining what political party you choose?  Older people tend to agree more with the Republican party because of the reasons of the 2nd Amendment and have more of a majority of conservative thoughts compared to the younger people.  By the discussion question stating, “ Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a Republican, Democrat, or other?”.  For these reasons, we might expect the older generation to be more likely to report “strong republican” in comparison to the younger generation.  There seems to be some support for our hypothesis given that those who are older (M=56.6) are more likely to vote “strong republican” in comparison to the younger aged people who report “independent” (M=43.7).  While observing this 13 year difference in average age between groups, it is determined that it is statistically significant (F=18.7, df=7, p<.001).  While average differences in age do show statistical significance for older people to be more likely to report “strong republican” than younger aged people in 2018, this survey should be monitored in the future.  Political parties have been controversial since 1854 when the Republican Party actually started.  This topic affects the world due to our United States President having relations with other country leaders and his choices toward all of our laws and economic choices.  There are many influences on the decision of which political party people choose.  From the time you were born, families tend to have a political party choice passed down to generations, schools play an important role in helping kids choose, or just individuals learning for themselves by being more conservative or more liberal.   It’s a positive American right as a citizen to know which party we choose to support and vote for.  Since there have been different presidents, laws, and changes over the years since 2018, there may be certain changes with respondents later on in 2023.  This supports the operationalization of data and will have a higher chance of having measurement validity and reliability since the topic is an American right for the public.  

Group Descriptives
AGE IND,NEAR DEM 305 47.3 17.5 1.003 
  IND,NEAR REP 256 46.8 17.8 1.113 
  INDEPENDENT 407 43.7 17.0 0.843 
  NOT STR DEMOCRAT 347 46.1 17.2 0.923 
  NOT STR REPUBLICAN 268 49.1 17.0 1.041 
  OTHER PARTY 75 44.1 17.5 2.017 
  STRONG DEMOCRAT 369 52.5 17.5 0.913 
  STRONG REPUBLICAN 252 56.6 16.1 1.011 
  One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)                       F df1 df2 p AGE   18.7   7   702   < .001    

Does age matter in explaining the views on if most people can be trusted or that you can’t be too careful in dealing with people?  Younger people tend to have less trust because of relationships or friendships that aren’t taken as seriously compared to an older person’s experience with their relationships.  For these reasons, we might expect the younger generation to have less trust compared to the older generation.  

There seems to be some support for our hypothesis given that those who are younger (M=46.8) are less likely to report to be trusted or have trust in comparison to those who report “always trusted” (M=55.4).  While observing this 8 year difference in average age between groups, it is determined that it is not statistically significant (F=4.81, df=4, p<.002).  While average differences in age do not show statistical significance for younger people to be less trusted or have less trust with others compared to older people in 2018, this survey should be monitored in the future.  Further on in years, it seems that the younger generation are having more of a voice to be the role models for new generations since times have changed.  New trends, new laws, views, etc.  This might change how the data plays out and cause an increase to the younger people of respondents.  

Group Descriptives
AGE ALWAYS TRUSTED 63 55.4 16.7 2.109 
  ALWYS NOT TRSTED 136 47.6 17.8 1.524 
  CANT CHOOSE 9 46.7 20.4 6.811 
  USUAL NOT TRSTED 544 46.8 17.8 0.762 
  USUALLY TRUSTED 405 50.1 17.1 0.852 
  One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)                       F df1 df2 p AGE   4.81   4   55.1   0.002      

Response #2


One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)
AGE 0.284 1 797 0.594 
Group Descriptives
AGE FAVOR 1087 47.5 17.8 0.540 
  OPPOSE 434 48.1 17.8 0.856 

Does age play a role in one’s view on whether a stricter gun law should be in place or not? This particular survey question proposed the statement that a police permit should be obtained before one was able to purchase a gun and respondents stated whether they were in favor or opposed this law. Younger generations tend to be more entitled, but older generations tend to want to maintain their freedom and do not want to be told what to do. Considering this, one may believe that more older individuals would be in opposition of this law. There appears to be some support for this hypothesis as the average age of those in opposition of this gun law was age 48 (M=48), but the average age of those in favor was not much younger (M=48.) This difference does not show valid support for our hypothesis, therefore, the null hypothesis must be claimed that age does not play a role in one’s view on this gun law. This data does not prove to be statistically significant with (F=.284, df=1, P=.594). The probability value is greater than .05. Further research should consider how much views on this gun law has changed over time has many things have occurred regarding guns lately.


One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)
Group Descriptives
AGE 12.6 2 95.4 < .001 
AGE NO 979 46.1 17.7 0.566 
  REFUSED 36 53.9 16.1 2.689 
  YES 533 50.3 17.7 0.765 

Does age play in a role in whether someone owns a gun or not? Older people have experienced a different world and more than likely grew up in a family with someone in the military or with someone that owned a gun. It is more likely for someone to own a gun if they grew up around gun safety and those with guns. Therefore, one may believe that more older people would respond yes that they do own guns because it is not an unfamiliar concept to them. According to the 2018 GSS data, the average age of respondents that own a gun is 50 (M=50.3) compared to the average age of those that do not own a gun being 46 (M=46.1). This 4 year age difference provides minor support for our hypothesis and these results are statistically significant (F=12.6, df=2, P= <.001).


One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)
AGE 14.5 1 682 < .001 
Group Descriptives
AGE NO 398 52.4 18.0 0.901 
  YES 1081 48.4 17.2 0.524 

Does age have an impact on views on whether a doctor should by law help one pass painlessly? As we grow older, we inevitably grow closer to our end on this earth. Although anything can happen at any given time, with what we know about the circle of life, one may believe that older people would be more likely to choose that they would like their doctor to help aid them in a painless death as they reached that point. According to the 2018 GSS data, the average age for those that chose yes was 48 (M=48.4) and the average age for those that chose no was 52 (M=52.4). These results do not support the hypothesis that age plays a role in one’s view on whether a doctor should help them pass painlessly or not because the average age is higher for the respondents that chose no. This data is statistically significant with (F=14.5, df=1, P= <.001). Future research should consider how this is changing over time and what other factors could impact the “yes” response.

Response #3

Dependent Variable: Abpoor Independent Variable: AGE

Does age alter the opinions on abortion concerning financial ability to care for the child? Older adults may view abortions as morally wrong because of the ethics and religion standards they were brought up in. There also was less medical information that is now present that once might not been available. Younger generations may be more receptive with this new information and be more in favor of abortion. Due to these reasoning more older individuals may disagree to legal rights for abortions compared to younger individuals. There seems to be no major support for this hypothesis given that the average age for saying no to the law was 49 (M=48.7) while the average age in support for this abortion law was 46 years old (M=46). There is a three-year disparity between those who on average say yes or no to this particular abortion law, which is not a huge difference, the test is statistically significant (F=8.85, df= 1, p= 0.003). The age range between those who said yes or no to the law concerning abortion does not greatly vary. However further information regarding the age of respondents may help to further explore the variables age and Abpoor. In recent news the Roe Vs Wade law was overturned giving states power to decide whether the state would provide legal abortions for various reasons including financial ability to care for the child. With the recent update it would be important to explore public opinion on abortion now versus in 2018.There is a strong chance that views have changed since then given the access to abortion is altered for many women.


One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)
AGE 8.85 1 1498 0.003 
Group Descriptives
AGE NO 757 48.7 17.8 0.646 
  YES 743 46.0 17.6 0.645 

Dependent Variable: Abpoor, Independent Variable: EDUC

Does the number of years of formal education alter the views a person has on legal abortions? Those who have lower number of years of education may agree to the abortion law being legal concerning financial reasons, because those who have lower education levels typically have lower income levels. Those who cannot afford a child or may know the struggle of financial burdens may sympathize with those in similar situations and agree that an abortion should be legal for this reason.  People who answered no for legal abortions had an average had 13 years of formal education (M=13.3) while those who said yes to this abortion law had 14 years of formal education (M=14.3) years. On average those with slightly more education agreed with this abortion law more often. These results are scientifically significant (F=49.8 df=1 p<.001). To further investigate the public opinion surrounding abortion, political party affiliation may be a key factor. Are those in certain political affiliation receiving more education? Abortion is a hot topic in politics and opinions can be altered because of a person’s political perspective. Abortion is an important right for women that have been recently overturned, it could also be informative if more women or more men are receiving higher levels of education which could influence views in abortion.


One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)
EDUC 49.8 1 1515 < .001 
Group Descriptives
EDUC NO 769 13.3 2.90 0.104 
  YES 749 14.3 2.89 0.106 

Dependent variable: Abpoor Independent Variable: SIBS

Does the number of siblings alter an individual’s stance on if abortion should be made legal for financial reasons? Those who come from larger families may have stronger values with preserving families. They also may come from religious backgrounds. Some religions promote large families and oppose abortions and use of birth control. For this reason, those who have more siblings may likely say no to laws associated with legal abortions because of a woman not being able to afford another child. From the 2018 General Social survey on average those with 4 siblings (M=3.83) said no to the law compared to those with an average of 3 siblings (M=3.27). There is slight support that having more siblings results in a person being more oppose to this abortion law. The results are scientifically significant ( F=14.5 Df=1 p<.001). It would be important to run this over several years to conclude if siblings do in fact alter a person opinion on abortion. The average number of children a family has may change throughout time. It could also be important to view income from families. Do larger families have higher wages or lower wages. The income level of a family dynamic could have potential to change views associated with legal abortion concerning financial ability to care for a child.

 One-Way ANOVA

One-Way ANOVA (Welch’s)
SIBS 14.5 1 1516 < .001 
Group Descriptives
SIBS NO 769 3.83 2.86 0.103 
  YES 749 3.27 2.84 0.104 

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