Assignment Booklet

Learning aim A:

Examine the function of the musculoskeletal system

and how it responds to exercise



AP1Explain the structure and function of the skeletal system, including the different classifications of the joints

In order to understand the function of the human body it is necessary to look at the structure first. The structure includes the skeleton, muscles and joints and their interaction to produce movement.

The Skeletal System

There are 6 main functions of the human skeleton:

Research and write a paragraph on each of the 6 functions below ~


The skeleton provides support for the body and keeps it upright. It also provides a framework for muscle and tissue attachment allowing us to move freely.


The organs within the body are protected by the skeleton. Some examples for that are:

The ribs in our bodies protect our lungs and heart, the brain is protected by the cranium, the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae and the pelvis offers protection to the sensitive reproductive organs.

Attachment for skeletal muscle

Source of blood cell production

Store of minerals


The skeleton can be divided into 2 major parts, the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

Complete the table below on the role and bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton –


The Skeleton

The bones of the body that you need to know are as follows:





Vertebral column: cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx



















Label the diagram of the skeleton with the bones above, add in extra labels to the skeleton where needed. Useful link –

Pin by MelanieLarson on homeschool | Human skeleton anatomy, Human skeleton labeled, Human body worksheets (

The Skeleton

Types of bones

There are 5 different types of bones-

  • Long bones
  • Short bones
  • Flat bones
  • Irregular bones
  • Sesamoid bones

Complete research to give a description of each type of bone and to find out where each type of bone can be found in the skeleton.

Type of bone/description  Example in body


Bones are connected at joints

All bone movements occur at joints

Joints are functionally classified as fixed, slightly moveable or freely moveable

The following are different types of joint. Go through the Ppt Joints.ppt ( complete research to give the movement range and example in body of joint in body in the table below –

Ball & Socket            

Synovial joints

These are the most common type of joint in the body and the most important for physical activity as they allow a wide range of movement.The joint is enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule which is lined with a synovial membrane.Lubrication is provided by synovial fluid which is secreted into the joint by the synovial membrane.Where the bones come into contact with each other they are lined with smooth yet hard wearing articular cartilage.Synovial joint stability is provided by the strength of the muscles crossing the joint, which are supported by ligaments which may be inside or outside the capsule.

The following are all types of synovial joint –

  • Ball & Socket
  • Hinge
  • Pivot
  • Saddle
  • Condyloid
  • Gliding

Complete the table giving a description of the movement at each joint and the location of the joint in the body. Useful research link – Range of Movement (ROM) (

JointDescription of movement at joint  Location in body
Ball and socket (example)Allows movement in nearly every direction including – abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, rotation  Hip and shoulder

AP2 Explain the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types, identifying the location of the major muscles in the human body

What is a muscle?

Muscles comprise 45% of the total body weight and there are in excess of 600 in the human body.

There are 3 types of muscle:

  1. Skeletal muscle, which is external and used primarily for movement of the skeleton.
  2. Cardiac muscle, which is found only in the heart and used to force blood into the circulatory vessels.
  3. Smooth muscle, which lies internally and has several functions including forcing food through the digestive system (peristalsis) and squeezing blood through the circulatory system via arteries and arterioles.

Major muscles of the body

Label the muscles at the front of the body. Useful link –These are your muscles. Understand the big groups, then work them regularly. | Muscular system, Muscular system for kids, Musculoskeletal system (

Label the muscles of the back of the body.

The main function of a muscle is movement. In order to produce movement the muscles either shorten, lengthen or remain the same length whilst contracting. There are 4 ways that a muscle can contract:

  • Concentric contraction
  • Eccentric contraction
  • Isometric contraction
  • Isokinetic contraction

Research and describe the different types of muscle contraction in the table below. Useful link – Muscle Training (

Type of contractionDescription  
Isometric contraction         
Concentric contraction         
Eccentric contraction         
Isokinetic contraction         

Muscles act in groups rather than singly, most are arranged in antagonistic (muscle) pairs at a joint.

  • The Agonist muscle is the muscle contracting, which shortens pulling on the bones around the joint to create movement
  • The Antagonistmuscle is the muscle relaxing to allow for movement

There is also a fixator muscle and a synergist muscle.

  • A Fixatormuscle stops any unwanted movement around the joint and stabilises the joint
  • Synergist muscles work together with the agonists to enable the agonists to operate more effectively

For example, in a bicep curl, which is elbow flexion –

Elbow Flexion  BicepsTricepsTrapezius

Research and complete the following tables, adding the Agonist (contracting muscle) and Antagonist (relaxing muscle) muscles for the different joint actions at the different joints –

Elbow Joint (hinge)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Flexion (example)Biceps  TricepsTrapeziusBicep curl
Extension    Trapezius 

Radio-ulnar joint (pivot)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Pronation (palm down)    
Supination (palm up)      

Shoulder joint (ball & socket)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Flexion    Erector Spinae 
Extension    Erector Spinae 
Abduction    Erector Spinae 
Adduction    Erector Spinae 
External Rotation    Deltoids 
Internal Rotation    Deltoids 
Horizontal flexion    Biceps 
Horizontal extension  Biceps 

Spine (pivot)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Lateral Flexion  Quadriceps & hamstrings 
Flexion  Quadriceps & hamstrings 
Extension  Quadriceps & hamstrings 
Rotation  Quadriceps & hamstrings 

Hip joint (ball & socket)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Flexion    Erector Spinae 
Extension    Erector Spinae 
Adduction    Erector Spinae 
Abduction    Erector Spinae 

Knee joint (hinge)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Flexion  Tibialis Anterior/ Ilio psoas 
Extension  Tibialis Anterior/ Ilio psoas 

Ankle Joint (condyloid)

MovementAgonistAntagonistFixatorExercise example
Dorsiflexion    Quads/Hams 
Plantar flexion    Quads/Hams 


Distinguished by their speed of contraction – slow and fast twitch. Human skeletal muscle consists of mixtures of each type of fibre. The proportion of each type of fibre varies in the same muscles of different people, and in different muscles within the same person.

Research the muscle fibre types and give the characteristics and the types of sport each are associated with in the table below –

Fibre type  CharacteristicsSports
Type I                    
Type IIa                    
Type IIb                    

AM1(AD1) Analyse how the musculoskeletal system produces movement and the effects of acute and long-term exercise

Sporting Example 1: Slide tackle


Label the muscles




Sporting Example 2: Throw in

Related image


Sporting Example 3: Header

Image result for football header


Sporting example 4: Kicking a football- contact phase       Image result for kicking a football
Muscle in your example                
Role (what does it do in the movement you have chosen)                                  

AP3/AM1(AD1)Explain/analyse (evaluate) the acute and long-term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system

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