Treaty of ‘Abdallāh b. Sa‘d with the Nubians (651-2) as preserved in Al-Maqrīzī’s Khitat trans. Ḥasan, ‘Relations with the Muslim Arabs.’

‘In the name of God… This is a treaty granted by the Commander ‘Abdallāh b. Sa‘d b. Abī Sarḥ to the King of the Nūba and all his kingdom, a Compact binding of the Nūba both great and small from the border of Aswān to that of ‘Alwa.

‘Abdallāh b. Sa‘d made a covenant of security and truce between them (the Nūba) and the Muslims – their neighbours in Upper Egypt. Together with other Muslims and ahl al-dhimma: You Nūba people shall be safe under the safeguard of God and His Apostle, the Prophet Muḥammad may the blessing and the peace of God be upon him. We shall neither fight, nor wage war on you, nor attack you, so long as you abide by the conditions made between us and you.

You may enter our country as travelers not as settlers and we may enter your country as travelers and not as settlers. You shall protect those Muslims or their allies who tarry or travel there until they leave. You shall return to the land of Islam the run-away slaves of the Muslims; you must not take possession of them nor prevent nor hinder any Muslim who comes to take them and you must render him assistance until he leaves your country.

You shall maintain the mosque that the Muslims have built in the centre of your city and not hinder anyone from praying there, and you must keep it swept, illuminate it and treat it with respect.

Every year you shall deliver three hundred and sixty head of slaves to the Imām of the Muslims. They shall be slaves of good quality of your country without defect both male and female, neither extremely old nor children under age. Those you shall deliver to the governor of Aswān. If you harbour a runaway slave of a Muslim or kill a Muslim or a dhimmi or attempt to destroy the mosque which the Muslims have constructed in the centre of your city or withhold any of the three hundred and sixty slaves, then the truce and the security shall be abolished and we shall revert to hostility until God decides between us and He is the best judge.

Upon these conditions we are bound by the pledge of God, His covenant and protection and that of His apostle Muḥammad…, and you pledge yourself by all that you obey in your religion and community. And God is the witness between us and you. Written by ‘Amr B. Shuraḥbīl in Ramaḍan 31, (April-May 652).’

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