1. “Alleviating urban poverty in a global city: New trends in upgrading Rio-de-Janeiro’s favelas.” Habitat International 22, no.4 (1998): 449–462.
  2. Against “eradication and resettlement” of 1960 and 70s and isolated public-works projects of 1980s. Favela upgrading follows the “enactment of the 1988 Constitution that gave municipalities the power to formulate urban policies and laws at the local level.” (Pamuk and Cavallieri 1998). Written only 4 years after implementation of Favelas.
  3. Eradication and resettlement. Built with funds from United states Agency for International Development (USAID).
  4. Policy vacuum. Withdrawal from eradication. Some support from Church and ‘Project Rio’ (small scale upgrade of 6 favelas). Some administrative reorganization granting Rio municipality in 1974.
  5. Favela Upgrading. Favelas regained priority in public sector following election of Leonel Brizola in 1982 (interest in social issues). Period of decentralization. Increased power to develop local laws for municipalities. 1992 plan adopted favela upgrading instead of eradication and resettlement.
  6. (Favela-Barrio (FB) Program)
    1. (Pamuk and Cavallieri 1998). PROBLEM: Now there is property taxation!
  7. favelas with planned neighborhoods. Contrast to policies of the past which eradicated them. “It is both a matter of physically integrating the favela to the rest of the urban fabric by preparing it to receive the benefits of modern urban living, and to integrate the residents to mainstream society by preparing them to join the existing formal markets through the support provided by the social programs implemented, and investments in human capital.” (Pamuk and Cavallieri 1998)
  8. : spatial reorganization, land-ownership clarification, and social projects. Practice of “Master Planning”. Also 6 month “participation” with favela residents.
  9. among municipal agencies
  10. Mentions participation from Professionals of other cities and other interdisciplinary teams.
  11. . “In the past, the residents did the works themselves with technical guidance from the architects and engineers of the City Government.” (Pamuk and Cavallieri 1998)
  12. : Program has some internal resistance from “carioca municipal machine”. “Conceptualizing favelas as new city neighborhoods that should receive its full benefits while maintaining their peculiarities is a difficult task for the techno-bureaucratic mentality that has always seen it as completely outside of the legal framework of the municipality.”  (Pamuk and Cavallieri 1998) Administrative practices must change as well.
  13. : RISK: “Targeting certain neighborhoods in the city, applying special planning standards for them and channeling infrastructure investments into these settlements will raise property values in these select favelas compared to other favelas.” “The FB program does appear to have addressed this problem however by keeping land ownership in the public domain rather than transferring title to the residents.” (Pamuk and Cavallieri 1998)
  14. are proved through both physical space for its existence and by training for new businesses (building business skills and creating jobs). Long term management of these programs need to be sustained.
  • that consider people’s psychological, cultural, and sociological factors. “I have always nurtured the dream and the hope that with the prick of a needle, diseases may be cured. The notion of restoring the vital signs of an aisling spot with a simple healing touch has everything to do with revitalizing not only specific place but also the entire area that surrounds it.”  (Lerner 2003, 1)
  • Proposals aim to bring people onto streets and creating encounter. The city becomes a catalyst of social interactions (transport infrastructure can become social infrastructure such as a bus station as a gathering place). Design of public space for liveliness and diversity (rich and poor, elderly and young) should be “dynamic and inviting” (Lerner 2003, 48). Points to “Place de la Bourse in Lyon, Barcelona’s Plaza del Sol, Gammeltorv in Coppenhagen, Tojy’s Tsukuba Centre Square, Pioneer Courthouse in Portland, Oregon “magnificent examples of how to transform the city by creating dynamic and inviting public spaces.” (Lerner 2003, 48)
  • City is composed of fragments and voids should be filled up to create “continuity”: “Many major urban problems arise from a lack of continuity.” “Filling up these many urban ‘voids’ can be the first step to sound acupuncture” (Lerner 2003, 37)
  • Better and cheaper than subway. Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system in Curitiba, smart bike, smart taxi and the “ultimate mode of transportation: the Smart Pedestrian.” “Smart pedestrians are those who are allowed to move freely throughout the city, even in city parking lots, just by flashing their own personalized mobility card. As a consumer, the Smart Pedestrian will demand efficient urban facilities, more shops, and better services.” (Lerner 2003, 53). Against private auto referring to it as “Urban Cholesterol.”
  • Acupuncture can be sensory as in music: “When a distinct song or beat takes hold of a city’s or country’s identity , then good acupuncture is at work. It has echoes in everyday living, like improvised tapping on a matchbox at a street bar in Rio, the beat of drum on the sidewalk in Bahia, or hip=hop gushing from giant boom boxes in the streets of New York” (Lerner 2003, 35)
  • ” “Good acupuncture means building things smaller and stepping side to give way to the simplest beauties of nature, like the handsome river or the caressing wind.” (Lerner 2003, 19). Critical of large street avenues in Santiago de Cali, Colombia: “What a shame a good part of this Colombian city’s identity has been lost amid to many outsized avenues. Just to cross them, you’ll find yourself huffing up and over suspended pedestrian bridges.” (Lerner 2003, 18)
  • Separating the functions of city life -live here, work there, and take your leisure someplace else – is a waste of energy. The result is more pressure from traffic jams, wasted time, pollution and stress.” (Lerner 2003, 96)
  • as central goal of urban acupuncture: “good acupuncture is about drawing people out to the streets and creating meeting places. Mainly, it is about helping the city become a catalyst of interactions between people.” (Lerner 2003, 47)
  • : “This privatization of previously public space is accompanied by sociospatial segregation processes that, unlike in former years, no longer create a spatial divide between ‘rich town’ and a ‘poor town’, but rather ‘islands’ of the rich and island of the poor within the urban organism.” (Borsdorf and Dattwyler 2008)
  • re-shaping physical and social ecology of urban space: “They are homogeneous, highly segregated and protected areas allowing the middle and upper classes to co-habit increasingly scarce space.” (Borsdorf and Dattwyler 2008)
  • Examples are Ciudades Valladas of Santiago de Chile in the communities of Colina and Lampa.
  • were: private buildings, social housing, rented housing and shanty towns. 1979 “National policy on urban development” revoked concept of urban space as “scarce resource” and freed up all space for development.
  • built to host up to 300,000 people in “barrios Cerrados”. “Added to the exclusion from public space, this exclusive provision with goods and services marks the most decisive break with the idea of the city.” (Borsdorf and Dattwyler 2008)
  • (Zonas de Desarrollo Urbano Conditionado) is legal basis of “ciudad vallada” mega projects.
  • complete access to “Ciudades Valladas” and are “inaccessible to the public” (Piedra Roja, Hacienda Chicureo, La Reserva and Terrazas de los Condores).
  • weaking normative force of state to the extent that public space is being massively privatized at an unprecedented scale by joint international private ventures.
  • : “The new development trends prove the thesis that the former polarized structure of a rich and a poor city (large scale segregation) is changed to a much more fragmented model: New cities for the rich are rising in the periphery and “barrios cerrados” are not spreading out all over the metropolitan region.” (Borsdorf and Dattwyler 2008)
  • federal law examination through lens of “Right to the City” in Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro State). Signals radical departure from modernist planning models between 1940s and 1980s. Twofold goal of paper:
  • “…the right to the city in a legal framework such as the Statute is unprecedented and unique and thus deserves recognition.” (Friendly 2013)
  • . “…in reflecting on the poor implementation of the Statute of the City in cities in Brazil, I argue that a more nuanced approach is needed in understanding the changes that have taken place in Brazil’s urban policy and planning over the past 20 years.” (Friendly 2013). PROBLEM: “…the implementation of a policy that was supposed to uphold the right to the city has not been transformed into the ideals of either Lefebvre or the overall right to the city movement.” (Friendly 2013)
  • which is “connected to everyday life, social relations and political struggle, and it is socially produced through everyday life and political struggle” (Purcell, 2008 in (Friendly 2013)). Couples right to city with “right to difference” which means “challenging the controlling forces of homogenization, fragmentation and uneven development imposed by the state, the market and the bureaucracy.” (Friendly 2013)
  • . Right to city is dual: on the one hand participating in processes that produce urban space but also having “the right to access the types of things one needs in order to live a dignified life.” (Friendly 2013). (Purcell, 2008; Soja, 2010).
  • began as early as 1960s (by progressive and left-wing sectors)
  • grants urban policy authority to municipalities and legally recognized the “right to the city” for the first time.
  • . Challenges in Brazilian planning framework:
  • : “toolbox” of legal instruments requiring developers to make use of public land, enforcing penalties for failed deadlines to avoid speculation and taxing wealthy to pay for infrastructure. “This instrument is based on the rationale that privileges property owners living in expensive high-rise apartments, characteristic of the way Brazilian middle-and-upper classes live in large cities, should contribute to paying for the costs of infrastructure in affluent, high density districts.” (Souza, 2001b in (Friendly 2013))
  • designed to protect favelas and prevent evictions. “In a context where the poor have often been pushed to the fringes of cities, this tool is an exceptional achievement.” (Friendly 2013)
  • (10 years before Statute’s adoption) but council that led it was dissolved and did not result in tangible outcomes.
  • : Following Statute of the City, cities with 20,000 + residents required to negotiate masterplan and Niteroi’s plan in 2004 was not considered “particularly participatory, and is considered by most people to be more of a readjustment than a renewal”  (Friendly 2013)
  • to implement Statute and are struggling to implement their master plans: “The majority (of municipalities) do not have an appropriate administrative structure for the practice of urban planning, with regards to technical, human, technological and material, not to mention the low diffusion of the councils of participation and social control aimed at building a culture of participation and implementation of urban development policy.” (Junior, Silva & SantAna, 2011, 5 in (Friendly 2013))
  • and calling into question validity of such processes. One problem is vagueness on what constitutes “participation.”
  • has been problematic.
  • major problems: “…as long as corruption dominates decisions, there can be no faith in the fairness of government, and that space will be filled by some alternate power system for resolving disputes and maintaining order.” (Perlman, 2020, 311 in (Friendly 2013)
  • Despite the implementation difficulties, this model of participatory planning may provide useful lessons for designing participatory planning, and it suggests ways in which the right to the city can be guaranteed for all.” (Friendly 2013)
  • Argues “developmental paradigm” needs to be reevaluated and in terms of “architectural production.” Non-participatory models are insufficient.
  • (National housing bank) built on model of pre-established prices based on class and mortgage transfer systems to inhabitants. Incentive to builders was to build as cheaply as possible (amount they received from BNH was constant)….this created a situation for developers of “capitalism with no risk.”
  • transferred housing to municipal level policy with no articulation or dedicated funds for development. Positive aspect of constitution: concept that “land should have a social function.” (Lara 2013)
  • (Cities’ Statute). Legal framework to deal with informal settlements. ZEIS as special social interest zones allow to overcome minimal street and lot requirement for the provision of basic infrastructure.
  • surge of poor area infrastructure improvement programs by left-leaning mayors.
  • ” Favela Barrio program in 1994. By 2000, 1 million inhabitants in 600 different favela settlements.
  • . 32 local firms proposed, 15 selected for each of 15 priority zones.
  • : “multi-sectorial integrated approach”: roads, public space infrastructure and basic infrastructure improvements, relocating and building new housing for “risky area” inhabitants within the same settlement. Tenurization and legalization was planned though not fully realized. Financed by city and later Inter American Development Bank. US$300 million to benefit half million people in 146 settlements. Political setbacks slowed down process. Success of phase 1 led to internal political conflicts associating certain campaigns with program.
  • : Second Lula presidential term and now $200 billion infrastructure program (sanitation and public space improvement). $2 billion brought to Rio (6 times more than original budget). Important mandate change: construction had to hire 40$ of labor force from the community.
  • . Where is evidence for this statement?: “While the architectural competitions are surely the best process for achieving design quality, the implementation of such designs fall short if the community is not engaged in it.” (Lara 2013)
  • (Ministry of Housing) led housing efforts in city.
  • (1989-1993) supporting self-help construction with trained supervision.
  • : redraw administrative boundaries into 99 sub-watersheds: “The use of geological boundaries as a method of re-reading the urban landscape has been the topic of many debates, primarily in the realm of landscape architecture in Europe and US.” (Lara 2013). Advantage: major environmental problems are sewage and flooding.
  • designing for poorest communities. Brings visibility and this seems to be driver for selection rather than expertise.
  • (either PT or ally PSB, socialist party)
  • (PB). Every 2 years city contributes partial public works budget to general population assembly decisions.
  • following “Right to the City” idea. “By starting small with a participatory model, Belo Horizonte had time to plan, test, and fine tune processes before moving to large-scale intervention, which might have been blessing after all.” (Lara 2013)
  • is a comprehensive plan and prerequisite for application of participatory budget. Includes detailed survey and GIS mapping of existing infrastructure and socio-economic data.
  • . Involves “innumerable meetings” with multi-sector participants and can take years from approval to completion.
  • allocated to this area between 1994 and 2008.
  • since plans are granted to “lowest bidder”, the “Archilles heel”
  • as interventions increased in scale/PAC financing. “Sixteen years of progressive administration and participatory processes are being dismantled while the same PT who created it all turns a blind eye for the sake of governability.” (Hunter 2010; Brasil 241 2012 in (Lara 2013))
  • Construction bidding (by metrics and values) and commission ‘by reputation’ (opaque process) are insufficient. Model based on popular opinion tested but gradually marginalized as FIFA world cup 2014 created political speed pressure.
  • : “As a testament to the limits of architecture, it is fair to say that the failure or the success of those interventions have less to do with the design qualities and more to do with urban policy in general.” (Lara 2013)
  • leads to higher tendency of vandalization or abandonment.
  • Left at hands of construction companies and lowest bidder, “interventions are often cheaply designed and poorly built.” (Lara 2013). Architectural competition is better alternative.
  • leads to higher media reverberation but less local knowledge application.
  • Researching the Contemporary City: Identity, Environment and Social Inclusion in Developing Urban Areas (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2013)
  • (Kellett and Hernandez-Garcia 2013, 13)
  • confirms that urban space is central to the construction and re-construction of civic and national identities.” (Kellett and Hernandez-Garcia 2013, 14)
  • draws on perceived livability of master plan desert developments to make the case they can be more desirable residential zones than inner Cairo.
  • reveals tackling disability issues in urban space is not only about physical interventions but changing a culture of prejudice.
  • Examines successful ways marginalized communities have worked with official organizations to bring “significant improvements in living conditions.” (Kellett and Hernandez-Garcia 2013, 17)
  • . Advocated for community adoption of settlement monitoring. Change of balance of power between landlords and tenants (majority of tenants gaining ownership titles to their dwellings).
  • Follows inhabitants social and cultural capital tactics to turn informal to formal housing. Strong agency by residents.
  • Inhabitants of ‘colonias populares’ producing own space in variety of ways. Qualitative research methods.
  • . Public space is on agenda of early informal settlements. Largely produced and transformed by users.
  • examines interrelationship between ‘tangible heritage’ (building, spaces) and ‘intangible heritage’ (activities, traditions, etc.). The ‘Danzon’ has contributed to the consolidation of the ‘zocalo’. Author concludes that: “it can be argued that physical changes and cultural activities can be mutually influential, either through material transformations or through cultural promotions.” (Kellett and Hernandez-Garcia 2013, 183)
  • . People maintain cultural aspects even when building in crowded metropolis (search for cultural stability and social harmony).
  • . Study on the spatial and behavioral relationships within home-based enterprises (HBEs)
  • . Argues for formal recognition of home-based enterprises in informal settlements. Important not just for livelihood of household but community as whole in provision of vital goods and services.
  • (Kellett and Hernandez-Garcia 2013, 22)
  • through High Line case study
  • country governments to emulate Western models of planning and development. Example: Delhi Master Plan 1962 under leadership of Albert Mayer today inequitable distribution of land “increasingly under the neoliberal and laissez-fair policies of the Indian State.” (Morenas 2013)
  • “’the struggle’ for (landscape designers and planners lies not with spatial from and aesthetic appearances alone but with the advancement of more socially just, politically emancipatory, and ecologically sane mix(es) of spatio-temporal production processes, rather than the capitulation to those processes, imposed by uncontrolled capital accumulation, backed by class privilege and gross inequalities of political-economic power” (Harvey 2005 in Corner 2006: 28). Ironic Harvey in 2010 criticized reshaping of NYC in favor of developers and the rich.
  • are not paid to the city and redistributed to other parks but instead to the Friends of the Highline through a “special arrangement.”
  • Landscape Urbanism does not inherently contribute to social justice, political emancipation, or ecologically saner designs.” (Morenas 2013) Rather, it can end up fostering “uncontrolled capital accumulation, backed by class privilege and gross inequalities of political-economic power” (Corner 2006 in Morenas 2013)
  • as attempt to bridge informal settlements with formal planning. Supports the idea of coupling informality with “an easy-to-implement design and managerial approach capable of providing informal residents with conditions they cannot achieve on their own.” (Gouverneur 2015, xxiv). KEY: “Preemptive” rather than reactive approach.
  • : “Urban design configurations that act as linear components that favor mobility, connectivity, and directionality.” (Gouverneur 2015, xxiv)
  • refers to: “Diversity of design, performative, and managerial principles corresponding to both public and private realms.” (Gouverneur 2015, xxiv).
  • of prior attempts to deal with “urbanization challenges” (planning ahead for urban growth)
  • presented as “an undeniable part of the historical process and formation of some societies, its legacy led to social stratification and extreme social inequality.” (Gouverneur 2015, 3).
  • for marginalized social groups are (Gouverneur 2015, 9):
    • . Often colonial inheritance.
    • Real Estate speculation on enacted urban plans.
    • No savings or collateral or income marginalizes settlers to informality.
  • (Europe and North America 1760 and 1840)  accelerated urban growth, conflict and the aggravation of poor sanitary conditions.
  • problems resulted in fragmentation of cities: “The application of the modern urban palette in developing countries fostered not only segregation, but also the reliance on a traditional real-estate-driven model, to which the poor did not have access, would place dwellers of informal areas in a  submissive condition in relation to formal city.” (Gouverneur 2015, 13)
  • initiative by World Bank (pioneered early 1970s) was successful at neighborhood scale (provision of amenities, lot division and infrastructure) but “not capable of addressing the complexities of larger territorial and metropolitan scenarios.” (Gouverneur 2015, 18). John F.C. Turner foundational researcher on informal settlements, also instrumental in establishing sites and services program. PREVI in Peru and Elemental program in Chile.
  • ?: “The informal settlements, with their urban configuration and social cohesion, convey a sense of place, belonging and identity, which may be closet to the cultural heritage of these nations than that of the planned and regulated formal urban products.” (Gouverneur 2015, 26)
  • from 1940s to 1970s
  • (Gouverneur 2015, 47)
  • (LOOU) one of the first to instruments LATAM to give legal status to informal settlements.
  • . Improve 1.3 million people informal settlements. Did not receive Presidential support and 1994 Chavez elected president.
  • : “Perhaps the most disappointing symptom is that, despite the social agenda of the Chavez administration, which openly catered to the poorer strata of Venezuela, the authorities have not been able to improve living conditions within large informal settlements of the capital city and throughout the country.” (Gouverneur 2015, 62)
  • on all levels of society and political institutional, economic and legal structures. (Gouverneur 2015, 66)
  • targeting private or public land for “planned squatter occupations.
  • , “Bogota was transformed by the vision and drive of a succession of effective municipal administrators that built on each other’s contributions.” (Gouverneur 2015, 71). Jaime Castro, Antanas Mockus and Enrique Penalosa.
  • :
    • . Names Transmilenio and modeled after Brazil’s Curitiba BRT.
    • (park-libraries) in Colombia. “Biblioteca El Tintal” particularly positive example of “transformative power of a site”
    • Parque Simon Bolivar (400 hectares) and Biblioteca-Parque Virgilio Barco (designed Rogelio Salmona).
    • : social housing in formal and informal settlements
  • (mayor) and Alejandro Echeverri (Director of Strategic Urban Projects). Root of success: STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: “To make Medellin the most educated city: “Medellin: La mas Educada.”   (Gouverneur 2015, 87). Five aspects of strategic plan:
    • , along with providing an immediate response.
    • and an ambitious program of educational facilities
    • contra la exclusión social (PUIs) / Holistic urban plans tackling social exclusión. Metrocable of Santo Domingo: “exemplary of the careful sequencing of interventions that would gradually improve the once troubled district, each time making it healthier and more resilient, as well as strengthening its socio-economic networks.” (Gouverneur 2015, 95)
    • : substitution housing, new social housing
    • .
  • ” forces” inducing emergence and growth of informal settlements
  • (focus on financial and human capital)
  • . By settlers adapting to new habitats and ameliorating uncertainty and violence.
  • through “connective infrastructure and public space.”
  • (Gouverneur 2015, 120). CRUCIAL to conceive parallel to good management and governance: “Morphological and aesthetic projects cannot be conceived independently of the economic, administrative, political, or institutional considerations that will mobilize the transformations.” (Gouverneur 2015, 132)
  • Elongated, multifunctional systems that play an important role in structuring the public realm and establishing the framework for future urban infill.” (Gouverneur 2015, 166)
    • Ideally measure between 100 and 500 feet and aimed at becomes center of activity. From potable water provision to community center.
    • Contrast to attractors as they slow urban expansion. Could be wetlands, valuable agricultural soils, archeological and historical sites, and unique ecosystems. Should ideally measure between 150 to 600 feet wide.
  • Infill areas to host combination of individual and communal efforts.
    • Where informal occupation is expected to occur.
    • Host diversity of productive and income-generating uses. Could be converted to manufacturing centers, education and health facilities, parks, or real-estate operations as the settlements mature.
  • . Ways of engaging the community since “Engaging the community makes these spaces defendable, moving away from practices of legal protection, static surveillance, and policing.” (Gouverneur 2015, 181). Garden Keepers type of stewart. All stewarts meant to be provisional as “when a strong bond is established between users and sites and they become true public spaces, the Stewards and Garden Keepers may transform or cease to exist.”  (Gouverneur 2015, 186)
  • as it is “deleterious to the social, economic, and environmental conditions for the majority of the population living in developing countries.” (Gouverneur 2015, vxii)
  • Social Urbanism in Latin America: Cases and Instruments of planning, land policy and financing the city transformations with social inclusion (Springer, 2020)
  • Focus on public land policy and “innovative” urban instruments…to promote social and territorial inclusion.” (Leite et al. 2020, 7)
  • function defined as advocating “the improvement of urban quality and socio-territorial inclusion.” (Leite et al. 2020, 5)
  • is presented as a term to define “…basic urban infrastructure such as electricity, sanitation, and networks of public transportation, community facilities/public equipment, and public spaces that constitute the territorial support which, long with housing, can build a respectable city where everyone if able to enjoy a decent life quality.” (Leite et al. 2020, 5)
  • housing cooperative Uruguay, PREVI Peru, Favela-Barrio program, Neighborhoods upgrading program (Mejoramiento de Barrio-NUP).
  • “…the discussion leads to the urgency in our Latin American society to perceive its territory as a collective asset as opposed to just a collection of private properties.” (Leite et al. 2020, 8)
  • One of biggest challenges. Must avoid urban planning paradigms and idealist regulatory frameworks opting instead for local context-based innovative urban strategies that combine both planning and bottom-up initiatives.
    • that includes community participation.
    • (applicability and effectiveness)
  • leads to constitutional reform of 1991 based on legal framework of “State of Social Rights” and participatory democracy.” (Leite et al. 2020, 36). Series of laws that followed increase urban participatory planning and transparency.
  • Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial de Medellin proposed city model with systemic territorial view.
  • defined as “high-impact” urban intervention instrument whose scope covers three front of actions:
    • based on creation and public spaces and quality facilities covering health, education, recreation, sport, and culture, favoring environmental recovery in of high-risk areas with redefinition of mobility and adequacy of public space
    • based on participation and coexistence
    • through actions to prevent violence and crime
  • Perception of “citymarketing” above all social gains. Also, reproduction of problematic dynamics of formal city in previously informal settlements (gentrification and creation of periphery within periphery).
    • Metrocable Stations.
    • as strategy for “Citizenship awareness”
    • for leisure and citizenship

7.1 Participatory strategies. Creating the appropriate environment for this to happen may have been his greatest achievement because “as the people have recognized their citizen’s rights to decision-making, they may, after all, come to demand them.” (Leite et al. 2020, 64)

    • (Transmilenio BRT, bike paths, etc)
    • (Collective facilities, library parks, etc)
  • originator of urban experiments in mid-1990s. For chart of municipal administration and guidelines see: (Leite et al. 2020, 75)
  • led to decentralization and assigned more instruments at local level management.
  • Planes de ordenamiento territorial is compulsory for cities over 100,000 inhabitants. Then PP (Plan Parcial) are the “key tools for the materialization of the POT, since they cover most of urban planning and management instruments.” (Leite et al. 2020, 70)
  • coupling intermodal system, public mass transportation of the BRT and bicycle lanes.
  • Recovery and construction of parks, walkways, malls and a network of parks and libraries.
  • Implement urban affordable housing and curb urban expansion on peripheral area land acquisition.
  • policies related to public space, housing, and transportation have not advances significantly when compared to previous administrations.” (Leite et al. 2020, 88). Project related to mobility, public space and housing stagnated. Bogota still remains rich to the north and poor to the south.
  • Fernando Haddad as mayor places land policy at forefront of urban development and social promotion. Policies included land use regulation, programs, projects. Rooted in the 1988 Federal Constitution (Citizen Constitution) as well as Federal Law (Statute of the City).
  • Award wining regulatory framework that favored actions such as rescuing and valuing public spaces, sustainable mobility, etc.
  • developing urban policies in Brazilian cites.
    • city developed through spontaneous and disordered action. Inequitable use of land exacerbated by dramatic growth in 20th century. Poorest population in periphery.

3.2 Problematic land predisposition. “Land in Sao Paulo is private. Bare land does not produce public parks or public facilities, but rather it is treated as a speculative stock of wealth.” (Leite et al. 2020, 98)

    • enacted after the “Statute of the City.”
    • is approved though only effectively implemented in Haddad’s term.
    • developed by Sao Paulo Urbanismo (SP-Urbanism) which introduced urban master planning, expansion of urban perimeters to include vulnerable areas, linking resources to construction of affordable housing and creation of mechanisms to promote urbanity.
  • in Sao Paulo
    • Including regulation of land use to promote densification along public transportation network.
    • “Democratization of public space.” In tandem with urban mobility as “…the question of urban mobility was addressed as a means of access to collective use of land.” (Leite et al. 2020, 113). Programa Centro Aberto (Open Center Program) opened, re-qualified and democratized access to public space. Also involved “tactical urbanism” such as participatory workshops and pilot projects to revitalize areas in city center (free Wi-Fi, new public lighting, street food, artists, shared bicycles, etc.). In neighborhoods, public spaces were developed and improved by Programa Territorio CEO (Unified Educational Centers Territory Program).
    • High-capacity public transportation and active mobility (cycle paths and pedestrians)
    • Including re-densification of central urban areas. Coupled with tax incentive policies such as the 50% discount on taxes on development initiatives in Southern zone of Sao Paulo.
    • Especially in the center and areas with better infrastructure. “While guiding urban development towards areas with greater infrastructure and access to public transport, PDE’s general strategy is complemented by combating the idleness of hundreds of properties in privileged and priority locations.” (Leite et al. 2020, 109). Aligned with PMH (Municipal housing program).
    • Important to developed integrated diagnostics and share this information with society (transparency).
  • Access to land at the core of case study. First and foremost to tackle conflicts and debates of access to land. “The challenge of urban planning is to correct distortions that the free market would generate if not for the counterpoint of urban laws that regulate the access to land and its use.” “Sao Paulo city placed the land issue in the center of the formulation and implementation of its urban policy, with clear guidelines for social and environmental rebalancing through the replacement of the existing model.” (Leite et al. 2020, 121)
  • “Large-scale urban projects (GPUs) in Argentina from the concept of just city as developed by the urban planning theorist Susan Fainstein.
    • “Fainstein’s contributions expose the complexity of the issue, transcending the dichotomy between uncritical acceptance and full rejection, as well as clarifying differences between various megaprojects.  
    • large-scale urban renewal operations that produce physical-spatial and functional modifications of strategic areas, alterations in the profitability of land uses, and changes in public management mechanisms.” (Leite et al. 2020, 137–38)
    • Leite points to apparent contradiction with issues related to justice and space, such as just city, spatial justice and the right to the city, among others.
    • land use management, generation, capture and redistribution of capital gains, eventual positive impacts, as well as the opportunities and limitations of these initiatives.” (Leite et al. 2020, 138)
    • (1) consistency with democratic norms (democracy), (2) strengthening capacities for the disadvantaged (equity), and (3) recognition of group self-identifications (diversity)
    • Capital gains were not reused in other areas of the city. In later stages, selling mostly larger lots to larger developers. Does provide multiple public spaces and parks while criticized for lack of public transportation provision.
    • Praised for destination of 42 hectares of public use including accessibility to coast but criticism on potential gentrification. Municipality requires certain obligations from developers (infrastructure, green space, rehabilitation of historic assets, etc.). Redistributive potential for land jeopardized since “46% of revenue diected towards the Municipal Land Fund is not utilized, being redistributed within the general municipal pool.” (Leite et al. 2020, 143)
    • “…the city of Rosario had a more progressive local government with several consecutive terms, plus a relevant tradition which could have brought it closer to the desirable projects regarding the just city concept.” (Leite et al. 2020, 145)
    • Followed progressively by other countries as Uruguay, Argentina and Ecuador.
    • (Outorga onerosa do direito de construir e por alteracao de uso). Type of charge for building rights
    • Land value sharing tool.
    • Return of land value increments.
  • (Leite et al. 2020, 169)
  • (Leite et al. 2020, 170)Made Brazilian Statute of City and Colombian Law No. 388 1997 materialize to impactful actions.
  • The path is incremental, procedural, with achievements and setbacks, but transformative, involving participatory processes in the development of public policies, land policy, plans, projects, and urban and construction actions.” (Leite et al. 2020, 184–85)


Borsdorf, Axel, and Rodrigo Hidalgo Dattwyler. 2008. “New Dimensions of Social Exclusion in Latin America : From Gated Communities to Gated Cities , the Case of Santiago de Chile.” Land Use Policy 25 (April). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2007.04.001.

Friendly, Abigail. 2013. “The Right to the City: Theory and Practice in Brazil.” Planning Theory and Practice 14 (2): 158–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2013.783098.

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Lara, Fernando Luiz. 2013. “Favela Upgrade in Brazil: A Reverse of Participatory Processes.” Journal of Urban Design 18 (4): 553–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2013.824363.

Leite, C., C. Acosta, F. Militelli, G. Jajamovich, M. Wilderom, N. Bonduki, N. Somekh, and T. Herling. 2020. Social Urbanism in Latin America: Cases and Instruments of Planning, Land Policy and Financing the City Transformation with Social Inclusion. Suiza: Springer. Springer. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-16012-8?fbclid=IwAR0RNCMlNAEd_ROmztpRnjo6p0hr2fCObE-c7XVuMTZ5PIo0Q7_f3bjEWAw.

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Pamuk, Ayse, and Paulo Fernando A. Cavallieri. 1998. “Alleviating Urban Poverty in a Global City: New Trends in Upgrading Rio-de-Janeiro’s Favelas.” Habitat International 22 (4): 449–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-3975(98)00022-8.

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