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Question 1    4 pts

What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

Convenience sampling

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Network sampling

Question 2   4 pts

According to Grove & Gray (2019), what are the potential biases of convenience sampling?

This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.

This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias.

This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.

This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.

None of these answers best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.

Question 3   4 pts

What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?

180 participants

115 participants annually

82 participants per month

28 participants

Question 4   4 pts

Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?

The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and 90 participants were needed for each group.

The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, an alpha value of 0.5, and a moderate effect size.

The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.

The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, and alpha value of 0.5, and a strong effect size.

Question 5   4 pts

Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?

Participants were scheduled to be discharged.

Participants were able to understand English.

Participants were able to read and write.

Participants were patients on the telemetry unit or the ACE unit.

Question 6    4 pts

Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?

No exclusion criteria were specifically reported by the authors.

Participants could not complete the survey forms.

Participants were less than seventy years old.

Question 7 4 pts

What is the acceptance rate for this study?

unknown / cannot be calculated

100%

182/180 X 100% = 99%

2/180 X 100% = 1%

Question 8  4 pts

Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?

0%

1/78 X 100% = 1%

77/78 x 100% = 98%

unknown / cannot be calculated

Question 9 4 pts

What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.

The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.

Question 10 4 pts

Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study?

The Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living

The Pearlin Stress Process Model

The Bandura Self-Efficacy Scale

Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Scale

Question 11 4 pts

How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E)?

They computed a Cronbach’s alpha on a modified version of the scale that was administered to this group of subjects.

They allowed the participants to complete the scale in a location of their own choice.

They reported a Cronbach’s alpha level of 0.94.

They tested the current group of subjects using two different versions of the same scale (alternate forms reliability).

Question 12 4 pts

How do the authors describe the validity of the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) used in this study?

The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) was described as having construct validity.

The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) scale was reviewed by six experts prior to being used in this study.

The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) was examined by face, construct, and discriminant validity methods.

The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) readability levels were identified prior to being used in this study.

Question 13 4 pts

What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?

The authors developed the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E).

Interviews were reportedly used, but the author does not explain what was included in them.

The authors developed their own questions to assess functional status.

Question 14 4 pts

Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?

No

Yes

Question 15 4 pts

Which of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?

Primary unit nurses obtained participants’ Katz Index of Activity of Daily Living scores on admission and discharge.

Participants were contacted by phone by nurse researcher.

Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.

Researchers consented participants after face to face discussion of study.

Question 16 4 pts

Based on the study’s data collection methods, if there were more than one data collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?

Yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

Yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

No, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.

Question 17  4 pts

What descriptive statistics were NOT reported in this study?

median

mean

frequencies

kurtosis

Question 18  4 pts

Which one of these inferential statistics were NOT used to examine the data obtained from the participants?

Pearson correlation

Spearman rho

Multiple regression

Chi square

Question 19  4 pts

What is the level of significance (alpha level) set at for this study?

.05 or 5%

.01 or 1%

.10 or 10%

An alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article.

Question 20  4 pts

Which statement from the article would be considered a significant result?

There is a positive correlation between elders’ perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

In this study, the summed CBI-E score (M = 72.07, SD = 6.78) indicated that the total population of subjects (elders; n = 180) perceived high levels of caring.

Among total respondents (n = 180), 154 subjects (85.6%) experienced no decline, 26 (14.4%) experienced decline.

There is a postive correlation between elders’ perceptions of nurse caring behavior and functional status.

Question 21  4 pts

Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?

The percentage of elders who declined on the ACE unit was higher than on the telemetry unit.

There was a positive correlation between elders’ perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

There was a negative correlation between elders’ perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

The regression model of type of unit and nurse caring models predicting satisfaction of care explained 24% of the variance of elders’ satisfaction with care.

Question 22   4 pts

Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?

In this study, elders 70 and older were satisfied with nursing care when they perceived caring nursing behaviors.

Among total respondents (n = 180), 154 subjects (85.6%) experienced no decline, 26 (14.4%) experienced decline.

There was a negative correlation between elders’ perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

In this study, the summed CBI-E score (M = 72.07, SD = 6.78) indicated that the total population of subjects (elders; n = 180) perceived high levels of caring.

Question 23  4 pts

Which statements below, as reported by the author, would be considered a limitation of the study?

The instrument CBI-E had not been tested previously in a hospital setting.

In this study acutely ill hospitalized elders reported that nurses demonstrated caring behaviors, and they were satisfied with nursing care.

Elder care is complex, a specialty that requires specialized education.

The interaction of nurse caring behaviors (predictive variable) and type of unit (moderator) was neither associated with nor did it predict satisfaction with nursing care.

Question 24   4 pts

Which of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?

The sample lacked cultural and racial diversity.

The instrument CBI-E had not been tested previously in a hospital setting.

Elder care is complex, a specialty that requires specialized education.

In this study acutely ill hospitalized elders reported that nurses demonstrated caring behaviors, and they were satisfied with nursing care.

Question 25     4 pts

Which of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?

Additional research is needed to identify the factors that contribute to the functional decline of hospitalized elders.

The interaction of nurse caring behaviors (predictive variable) and type of unit (moderator) was neither associated with nor did it predict satisfaction with nursing care.

Although there was no unit difference in subjects’ functional status decline, the overall rate of functional decline (14.4%) was lower than the 33% in previous studies.

Teaching elder care in new-nurse orientation might improve nurse caring behaviors that lead to satisfaction and care quality.

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