- In which Supreme Court ruling did they rule it was cruel and unusual punishment to execute a person who was under the age of 18?
|Miller v. Alabama|
|In re Gault|
|McKeiver v. Pennsylvania|
|Roper v. Simmons|
- The consequences of racial, social and economic disparity do not take a toll on minority youth?
- It has been argued by Harvard University Law Professor Randall Kennedy –even if a law enforcement policy exists that disproportionately affects African American suspects, it might be justified as “public good” because law-abiding African Americans re statistically more often victims of crimes committed by other African Americans.
- The concept that the police role should be to maintain order and be a visible and accessible component of the community and that their efforts can be successful only when conducted in partnership with concerned citizens is a movement referred to as?
|Data driven policing|
- All of the following community level indicators are associated with the most serious violent crimes, including homicide and assault EXCEPT?
|Presence of youth gangs|
- Nonpunitive legal disposition of juveniles emphasizing community treatment in which the juvenile is closely supervised by an officer of the court and must adhere to a strict set of rules to avoid incarceration is referred to as?
- This form of delinquency prevention involves day care providers, nurses, teachers, social workers, recreation staff at the YMCA and counselors at the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. It is also referred to as alternative delinquency prevention?
|Nonjustice delinquency prevention|
|Justice delinquency prevention|
- The waiver process which involves transferring juveniles from juvenile to criminal court, where they are tried as adults transfers minorities at a greater rate than their representation in the population?
- These facilities are correctional centers operated by federal, state, and community governments, these facilities restrict the movement of residents through staff monitoring, locked exits, and interior fence controls. They are known as?
|Delinquency repression facilities|
|Institutional treatment facilities|
|Secure probation facilities|
|Community treatment facilities|
- Balanced probation is an effect to enhance the success of probation. Balanced probation systems integrate all of the following EXCEPT?
|The accountability of the victim|
|The accountability of the juvenile offender|
|Individualized attention to the offender|
- Under parens patriae delinquent acts are not considered criminal violations?
- All of the following are true regarding cognitive differences females have when compared to males EXCEPT?
|Superior verbal ability|
|Have better pronunciation|
|Superior visual/spatial ability|
- Boot camps for juveniles fail to reduce future offending for juveniles is they provide little in the way of therapy or treatment to correct offending behavior.
- Restitution can take several forms. Which of the following is not identified as a form of restitution?
|Community service restitution|
|Juvenile offender restitution|
|Victim service restitution|
- According to psychologist Sandra Bems, this theory of development holds that children internalize gender scripts that reflect the gender-related social practices of the culture. Once internalized, these gender scripts predispose the kids to construct a self-identity that is consistent with them. This theory is known as?
|Looking glass theory|
|Gender neutral hypothesis|
|Gender similarities hypothesis|
- In 1825 the child savers opened in New York a care facility founded on the concept of protecting potential criminal youths by taking them off the streets and reforming them in a family like environment. This care facility came to be known as ________
|House of Refuge|
- In 1989, The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) made it mandatory for juvenile and adults to share treatment facilities allowing them to share programs and staff in an effort to save federal funds.
- In the United States, juvenile probation developed as part of the wave of social reform characterizing the latter half of the nineteenth century. Which state took the first step in creating juvenile probation?
- Within all social and economic strata, males commit more delinquent acts than females. Even though delinquency arrest rates for both genders have been in a decade long decline. What is the current arrest ratio for serious violent crimes between males and females?
- The most glaring problem with treatment programs is that they are not administered as intended. Although the official goals of many may be treatment and rehabilitation, the actual programs may center around security and punishment.
- In an attempt to explain gender differences some experts suggest gender differences have a biological origin. They go on to say males and females have somewhat different brain organizations; is it true females are more left brain oriented and males are more right brain oriented?
- At one time female delinquency was viewed as an emotional or family related matter, and the few “true” female delinquents were sexual oddities whose criminal activity was a function of having masculine traits and characteristics; this was referred to as the?
|Gender difference theory|
|Cognitive difference theory|
- The typical delinquent detainee according to the national detention trends is:
|Male, 15 years of age, charged with a felony|
|Male, 16 years of age, charged with a serious offense|
|Female, 16 years of age, charged with a public order offense|
|Male, 16 years of age, charged with a public order offense|
- Nineteenth-century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system today are referred to as?
|The chancery court|
|Poor law reformers|
- This report includes an analysis of the child’s feelings about the violations and the child’s capacity for change. It also examines the influences in producing and possibly resolving the problems. This is referred to as a social investigation. Is it also known as a post disposition report?
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