Analyse the data that was collected (see attached data set in excel) using a previously published questionnaire, and write-up a lab report summarising the findings, the format of which, including headings and sub-headings, is described in detail below in section entitled ‘Lab Report Structure & Content’ below.
Investigate emotion regulation (Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression) between genders by analysing the data that was collected through questionnaire for which hypotheses are required. Additionally determine whether the two facets of emotion regulation are related (i.e. correlated) for which no hypothesis is required.
Data analysis from questionnaire:
‘Cognitive Reappraisal’ and the ‘Expressive Suppression’ were scored in value ranges from 6 to 42 for Cognitive Reappraisal and from 4 to 28 for Expressive Suppression. Demographic information was collected for each participant for age (in years) and gender (either: male or female).
- Import the data into Jamovi and perform two independent t-tests to determine if a difference between genders exists (one for Cognitive Reappraisal and one for Expressive Suppression). Also obtain effect sizes to be included in the report.
- Perform a correlation on the data for the two facets and report using Pearson’s r and state the associated p-value. (Do not include a hypothesis for the correlation.)
Writing the report
The word limit is1400 words excluding the title page, the abstract and references section (and any figures and accompanying captions).
Lab Report Structure & Content
Standard format for APA article
Order of headings (and sub-headings)
- The title page to include: report title, word count, etc.
- The report title itself to be approximately 12 words that summarises the research and describes the outcome, rather than just indicating the topic or what was examined.
A focused summary of the research of approximately 150 words comprised of:
- 1-2 sentences describing the aim of the research
- 2-3 sentences on what was done
- 2-3 sentences on what was found.
- 1-2 sentences on what the findings mean
- No: repetition, statistics or citations in the Abstract.
- Provide a justification for the research question and the specific predictions
- To be written as an argument to support the hypotheses moving from the general topic to the specific. Therefore it must include:
- Specific reports of prior research evidence. Cite the most relevant journal articles to the research question. Please see the extracts of articles included under para 7. ‘References’ below.
- Details of relevant psychological theory
- By the end of the evaluation of the current knowledge and theory it should be obvious what is being examined.
- End with stating the hypotheses (alternative and null) for the two independent t-tests (no hypothesis is required for the correlation).
- How many, age (mean and range), male and female (number and split of age across groups), why participating (members of a course), any criteria (must be enrolled to…)
- Underlying design method (survey) leading on to description of more specific design (e.g. “This quasi-experiment used the gender of the participant as a grouping variable to examine differences in emotion regulation, and specifically Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression” etc.)
- Variables (independent, dependent – the measures, or just variables in situ)
- All stimuli and documentation (instructions, scales, etc)
- A 10-item scale designed to measure respondents’ tendency to regulate their emotions in two ways: (1) Cognitive Reappraisal and (2) Expressive Suppression.
- Respondents answer each item on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
- Reliability and validity of scales used, scoring, etc.
- All stimuli and documentation (instructions, scales, etc)
- What the participants did – usual to put
- Ethical comments here. (“Participants were informed of the study and advised of their ethical rights. They were informed before providing responses to the questionnaire that they could withdraw their consent at any time during or after the survey or could……..”)
- A logical and factual account of what was found without any discussion (which comes under the next heading). The data are your results therefore report these first using:
- Descriptive statistics – means and standard deviations. For example; “The mean for males in ‘Cognitive Reappraisal’ was … s (SD = …), and in ‘Expressive Suppression was….. s (SD = …).”
- A table is the better display
|Cognitive Reappraisal’||Expressive Suppression|
- An graphical visualisation of numeric data should be included (e.g., a bar chart showing male and females scores and a scatter plot of correlation data; and a table). Use only one graph for the most significant finding.
- A sentence with the ‘answer’
- “The research hypothesis was supported/not supported in that …”
- An interpretation of the finding
- A sentence; “This was/was not as expected. It was a … effect” (if there is one!)
- Interpretation relative to prior research (therefore some is needed in the Intro!)
- Interpretation relative to current psychological theory (so you need some in the Intro!)
- The quality of the research
- What was good about it and what was not so good;
- Short. e.g.”The study told us this, but not this, so a potential follow up study……”
- Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348-362.
- Ochsner, K. & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 242-249.
- Butler, E. A., Egloff, B., Wilhelm, F. H., Smith, N. C., Erikson, E. A., & Gross, J. J. (2003).
- Mauss, I. B., Levenson, R. W. McCarter, L., Wilhelm, F. H., Gross, J. J. (2005). The tie that binds? Coherence among emotion experience, behavior, and physiology. Emotion, 5, 175-190.
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