Bones are connected at joints
All bone movements occur at joints
Joints are functionally classified as immovable, slightly moveable or freely moveable
|JOINT TYPE||MOVEMENT RANGE||EXAMPLE IN BODY|
|Fibrous||Very stable and allow no observable movement. Bones are joined by strong fibres called sutures.||Cranium|
|Cartilaginous||A small amount of movement usually exists. Bones are joined by a tough fibrous cartilage which provides stability and shock absorption.||Vertebrae|
|Ball & Socket||Allows the widest range of movement and occurs where a rounded head of a bone fits into a cup shaped cavity.||Hip and shoulder|
|Hinge||Allows movement in only one plane i.e. backwards and forwards, strong ligaments exits to stop ant sideways movement.||Knee|
|Pivot||Allows rotation only(uniaxial)||Cervical vertebrae|
|Saddle||Biaxial movement occurs at this joint.||Carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb|
|Condyloid||Allows movement forwards/backwards and sideways.||Wrist|
|Gliding||Formed where flat surfaces glide past one another.||Wrist (where small carpal bones glide past each other)|
These are the most common type of joint in the body and the most important for physical activity as they allow a wide range of movement.
The joint is enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule which is lined with a synovial membrane.
Lubrication is provided by synovial fluid which is secreted into the joint by the synovial membrane.
Where the bones come into contact with each other they are lined with smooth yet hard wearing articular cartilage.
Synovial joint stability is provided by the strength of the muscles crossing the joint, which are supported by ligaments which may be inside or outside the capsule.
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