Research Report #2
- Please do NOT put your name on the assignment. When you submit the assignment in Moodle, it will automatically include your name with your submission.
- In addition to the points below, you will be graded on the quality of writing, which includes use of proper grammar, spelling, and clarity of thought in writing. You must use complete sentences for your responses.
- Reports should be typed in a Word document. Only .doc or .docx files will be accepted.
- Reports should be formatted using the numbering system. For example, type 1. and afterwards include your answer for question 1.
- Reports must be submitted to Moodle by the due date. Any emailed/late submission of assignments may be assessed with late penalties. See your course syllabus for late penalties.
- APA format must be used for all in-text citations and for the formatting of the references section. All sources used must be credible.
- You must paraphrase, do not use direct quotes. All work submitted should be in your own words and represent your own work – this assignment should be completed on your own. Your assignment will be checked for plagiarism and cheating.
In completing this assignment students will demonstrate that they can:
1. Create a testable hypothesis and interpret statistical data to identify hypothesis support.
2. Effectively find and use credible and peer-reviewed sources.
3. Explain and critique study design and variable measurement.
4. Describe sample characteristics and identify similarities with and differences between the samples and the study population.
5. Identify health risks of physical inactivity.
6. Apply recommendations to the interpretation of sample characteristics.
7. Interpret p-values and r-values to explain statistical relationships between variables.
8. Develop conclusions about a research study grounded in the data collected and analyzed.
|Topic of Research Report #2|
Research Report 2 will focus on the relationships between physical activity and GPA, stress level, and hours worked.
In Research Report 1, you read and referred to a previously published research article to answer specific questions about research and the research process.
In Research Report 2, you will be presented with the data collected from the “Data Survey/Packet” online and asked to interpret the results yourself. You are the author of the paper now! To answer the questions, you will need to refer to 2 documents: Class Survey Data and Class Survey Questions (both are available on Moodle).
|STEP 1: HYPOTHESIS FORMATION A hypothesis is a statement that predicts a relationship between variables. It is specific and falsifiable. A hypothesis is written in one sentence and includes both the independent and dependent variables. In this report, you will write a hypothesis for the relationship between physical activity and GPA, stress level, or hours worked. (10 points)|
1. In one sentence, write your hypothesis about the relationship between physical activity and GPA, stress level, OR hours worked. Be sure your hypothesis only includes 2 variables (1. physical activity, 2. GPA, stress level, OR hours worked) and be specific about how you expect the independent variable to influence or change the dependent variable. You may want to review the survey questions asked about these variables to better understand what each variable means (see Class Survey Questions available on Moodle) (6 points).
2. What is the dependent variable of your hypothesis? (2 points)
3. What is the independent variable of your hypothesis? (2 points)
|STEP 2: METHODS The methods component of a research study are how data are collected. In our class survey study, data was collected from students taking HS 2000. In this section you will describe and explain how the data was collected and identify strengths and weaknesses of the methods. (16 points)|
4. In the class survey study, how was physical activity measured? Be specific about the question asked, the responses available, and the units used in the data tables. (3 points)
5. In the class survey study, students enrolled in HS 2000 during Winter 2023 were asked to answer questions about their health. What is the study design of the class survey study (cross-sectional, longitudinal, retrospective, prospective, or experimental)? After identifying the type of research study design, explain HOW you know it is that type of study design. (4 points)
6. Who was the sample in class survey study? Be sure your answer fully describes the sample, including at least 4 demographic characteristics (see Table 1). (5 points)
7. Describe how data was collected in the class survey study. Be sure to include enough information so a reader could replicate the data collection procedure. (2 points)
8. According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (2nd edition) what is the recommended amount of aerobic physical activity for adults? Include an in-text citation and a full reference on the reference page in APA format (2 points).
|STEP 3: RESULTSThe results section is where researchers describe their sample, their findings, and explain statistical relationships. (40 points)|
9. In your own words, define what generalizability means in the context of a research study. (3 points)
10. Complete the following table to compare and contrast the HS 2000 sample characteristics (Table 1) to the American College Health Association (https://www.acha.org/documents/ncha/NCHA-II_Fall_2018_Reference_Group_Executive_Summary.pdf) on the following variables. (5 points)
Note: For Residence, please combine on-campus living situations to create an overall % of students living on-campus, please combine off-campus living situations to create an overall % of students living off-campus.
|Variable||HS 2000 Students||ACHA Sample|
|Gender % male % female % non-binary|
|Year % freshman % sophomore % junior % senior % other|
|Residence % On-campus % Off-campus|
11. Based on the information in the table above, do you think the findings of the HS 2000 class survey are generalizable to all US college students included in the ACHA study? Why or why not? In your answer include a discussion of sample size AND two (2) other characteristics. Include an in-text citation and a full reference on the reference page in APA format for the website referenced in question 12. (7 points)
Look at Table 2 and answer the following questions about physical activity (12a-12b).
12a. What is the average days/week of physical activity for HS 2000 students? (1 point)
12b. In the HS 2000 study sample 50% of students are meeting the aerobic Physical Activity Guidelines (see question 6). How does this percentage compare to United States national data? For this answer you will need to find a valid, credible source. In your answer specify what percent of HS 2000 students are meeting the guidelines, what percent of the US is meeting the guidelines, and how they compare. Provide an in-text citation and a full reference in APA format on the reference page for your valid, credible source. (3 points)
Look at Table 3. Identify and interpret the statistical relationship between physical activity and GPA by answering questions 13a – 13b.
13a. List the p-value. Is this statistically significant? How do you know? (2 points)
13b. List the r-value. If the relationship is statistically significant, interpret the r-value (strength and direction). If the relationship is not statistically significant, no r-value interpretation is needed (3 points).
Look at Table 3. Identify and interpret the statistical relationship between physical activity and work by answering questions 14a – 14b.
14a. List the p-value. Is this statistically significant? How do you know? (2 points)
14b. List the r-value. If the relationship is statistically significant, interpret the r-value (strength and direction). If the relationship is not statistically significant, no r-value interpretation is needed (3 points).
Look at Table 3. Identify and interpret the statistical relationship between physical activity and stress level by answering questions 15a – 15b.
15a. List the p-value. Is this statistically significant? How do you know? (2 points)
15b. List the r-value. If the relationship is statistically significant, interpret the r-value (strength and direction). If the relationship is not statistically significant, no r-value interpretation is needed (3 points).
Look at Table 4 and answer the following questions (16a – 16cd).
16a. What is the average physical activity (days/week) for students who work less than or equal to 15 hours per week? (1 point)
16b. What is the average physical activity (days/week) for students who work greater than 15 hours per week? (1 point)
16c. What is the p-value? (2 points)
16d. Is this statistically significant? (2 points)
|STEP 4: DISCUSSION Discussion sections of research studies summarize the research and make conclusions about the study. Discussion sections also look to other published, peer-reviewed studies to compare their findings to. (28 points)|
17. Look at your Hypothesis in Question 1. Was your hypothesis supported? Based on the statistical analysis and interpretation of Table 3 (see questions 13, 14, or 15), was your hypothesis supported? Answers will need to include p-values and reference statistical significance. You are graded on your assessment of support based on Table 3, NOT if your hypothesis was supported or not. (6 points)
18. Explain why you think your hypothesis was or was not supported. That is, thinking critically, why do you think this result occurred? If your hypothesis was supported, what is the link between variables? If your hypothesis was not supported, what are some alternative explanations? You are graded on your explanation and ability to critically think. (5 points)
19. Discuss whether or not you expected the results in questions 16a-d and provide a logical explanation for why or why not. (4 points)
20. Referencing your answer for question 4, describe a limitation of collecting physical activity in this way (3 points).
21. Referencing your answer for questions 4 and 20, describe a more accurate way of measuring physical activity (3 points).
22. Find a peer-reviewed, original research study that examines the relationship between physical activity and age, GPA, or stress. The original research study must be published in the past 10 years and specifically examine college students. Cut and paste the abstract as your answer for this question. Include an APA style in-text citation at the end of the abstract and an APA citation on the reference page. Meta-analysis, review papers, or conference abstracts are NOT original research studies. (4 points)
23. Describe your search process by: naming the search database used, identifying search terms, limiters used, and how many results the search returned. (1 point)
24. Identify TWO reasons the study you found is a good comparison to the class survey study. This can be due to measurements, sample size or characteristics, or the results. To answer this question, you will need to read the entire research article you chose for question 22. (2 points)
|STEP 5: REFERENCESLast, but not least, all research papers must include references. References give credit to the authors work and allows readers to get more information on topics that are interesting. (6 points)|
Create a reference page according to APA citation formatting. Provide full citations for references questions requiring a citation. Use APA citation formatting for the references (and in-text citations). For guidance on APA citation see the Purdue OWL website: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html
If you use any kind of software or program that formats your citations, you should double check that the citation actually follows ALL of the APA formatting guidelines. Sometimes they are not correct! This includes the citations produced by Google Scholar. (2 points)
You should include in-text citations and full references on the reference page for questions 8, 11, 12b, and 22.
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