I Multiple choice: Please choose the best answer of the 4.  If no answer fits you can add your own:  E

1. A pallidectomy can be used to treat which disease

A. Parkinson’s

B. Dyskinesia

C. Tourettes

D. None of the above

2. Creatine phosphate and ATP are the “quick” energy source of 

A. Muscles

B. Bone

C. Just cardiac muscle

D Just Smooth muscle

3. Sulci and gyri or folia increase the surface area of which of the following

A. Motor cortex and cerebellum

B. The cerebellum and pons

C. The somatosensory area and medulla

D. A and B

4. The neurons of substantia nigra use______ to talk to the basal ganglia

A.  Dopamine

B.  Acetylcholine

C.  Epinephrine

D.  All of the above

5. The sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscle has ion pumps for

A. Most ions

B. Phosphorus

C. Calcium ions

D. None of the above

6. The following neurotransmitters can directly open sodium ion channels

A. Epinephrine and norepinephrine

B. Dopamine


D. Acetylcholine

7. Acetylcholine has many functions but it is directly involved in muscle contraction when released by

A Neurons of the primary motor cortex

B .Extra pyramidal cells

C. Lower motor neurons of spinal cord

D. A and B

8. An example of a muscarinic antagonist drug is

A. Bethanechol

B. Morphine

C. Atropine

D. epinephrine

9. During the absolute refractory period of muscles

A. Repolarization is complete and sodium channels have been completely reset

B. A stronger stimulus can cause muscle contraction.

C. No stimulus can cause muscle contraction.

D. None of the above

10. Some forms of muscular dystrophy like Duchenne

A .May involve single gene defect on the X chromosome

B. Affects mostly males

C. Involve a membrane stabilizing protein called Utrophin

D. A and B

11 Fibro cartilage is located

A. In nose

B. Epiglottis

C. In intervertebral discs , menisci of knee and symphysis pubes

D. A and C

12. Treatment for myasthenia gravis of the following could include

A. Dilantin

B  Peripherally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

C. Thyrodectomy

D. All of the above

13. A drug that opens calcium channels could have the following effects

A. Decrease heart rate

B. Increase in force of contraction of heart

C. Decrease blood pressure

D. A and C

14. Osteomalacias are represented by

A Osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta

B. Pagets disease

C. Ewings sarcoma

D. A and B

15.Botulism toxin

A. Prevents release of acetylcholine at post synaptic membrane

B. Is post potent toxin known (excluding radioctive compounds)

C. Destroys acetylcholinesterase at NMJ

D. A and B

16 Fast glycolytic fibers

A. Have a lot of myoglobin and mitochondria

B. Would be good for a sprinter

C Are larger than other types

D B and C

17. Cranial nerve VII innervates

A. The pharyngeal taste buds

B. The teeth

C. The Parotid gland

18 If a young patient complains about a headache, pain in back of neck, has a fever and a rash what is the most likely condition they have?

A Flu

B Plague

C Meningitis


19. Bell’s palsy is the result of paralysis of what cranial nerve


B.  IV


D  .Hypoglossal

20.The Occulomotor nerve

A. Innervates the salivary glands

B. Innervates rectus muscles of eye and is involved in pupillary reflex

C. Is involved in the pupillary reflex

D. A and B

21.Cardiac muscle cells have

A. Dense bodies and calmodulin

B. Perimysium

C. Intercalated discs

D B and C

22.The following best describes visceral smooth muscle cells and its innervation

A. Involuntary, single nucleated,, non branching , no sarcomeres, single innervation

B. Voluntary, multinucleated , intercalated discs, single innervation

C. Involuntary , branching, intercalated discs, autorhythmic , varicosities

D. Involuntary, usually single nucleated, with varicosities

23. The only unicellular gland of the body

A. Are found in mucous membranes of respiratory and digestive tracts

B. Are more numerous in villi than cecum

C. are holocrine glands

D. All of the above

24. The Accessory nerve is number





II. TRUE OR FALSE (you can defend any answer)

1. Collagen has the tensile strength of steel

2.The keratin family of proteins is found in epidermis, nails and hair

3. The medulla oblongata contains nuclei of several cranial nerves, a respiratory center and connects the two halves of the cerebellum with commissural fibers

4. Damage to the radial nerve could result in clubbing

5. Damage to the medulla oblongata could possibly result in decreased cough and vomit reflexes and even death do to respiratory failure.

6. A blow to the temporal lobe could lead to temporary or permanent blindness

7. In most people the left side of the brain has Wernike’s area

8. Nerves in CNS do not repair, but can in the PNS thanks mainly to Schwann cells

9. The somatosensory cortex has a conscious “map” of the body skewed heavily to the thumb and lips

10. Of the three types of axons only type C are unmyelinated

11. The cerebellum has a subconscious memory for motor activity and talks indirectly to the primary motor cortex through the thalamus and also is communicated with by the reticular formation

12. The limbic system contains the amgydala ,parahippocampal gyrus, cigulate gyrus, fornix and stria medullaris and hypothalamus and is the emotional brain.

13. Damage to the stapedius muscle could cause hypoacousia, but would not be desireable.

14 Smpathetic nervous system stimulation causes contraction of smooth muscle of the digestive tract through alpha one receptors

15 Free nerve endings can carry sensations for itch and pain and probably tickle

16. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the cerebellum

17. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain

18. Cutting the anterior spinothalamic tract would greatly reduce intractable pain in patient

19. Acetylcholine is produced by most of the postsynaptic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system

20. More than 95% of the neurons in brain and spinal cord are multipolar

21 Closed- angle glaucoma causes a slow increase in aqueous humor in the eye, usually  without overt symptoms

22. The digestive tract has two nerve plexuses that are part of its “ in house” nervous system- Meissner and Auberbach

23. The smooth muscles of the coronary vessels have beta two receptors that respond to stimulation by causing dilation

24. Rigor mortis is the result of a lack of oxygen and thus ATP and reaches a maximum normally within 12-24 hours

25. Cranial nerves 3 and 5 control eye muscle movements

26. Nuclei are concentrations of nerve cell bodies in CNS

27. White matter is mostly nerve cell bodies and myelinated axons

28. The dorsal root ganglia have the cell bodies of unipolar sensory neurons

29. The dorsal column is a descending tract involved with proprioception

30. Sensory tracks are not always ascending

31 Motor tracts are efferent, such as the corticobulbar tract

32. The tectospinal , rubrospinal and vestibulospinal tracts are efferent, extrapyramidal tracts

33. The spinocerebellar tract is a sensory tract involved in communicating information from muscle spindle to cerebellum

34. The vestibulospinal tract is a conscious extrapyramidal tract involved with balance

35 Macrophages in the pigmented epithelium are defective in retinitis pigmentosa

36 The approximately 20,000 outer hair cells of the organ of Corti receive mostly information from the brain.

37. The brain probably does not have its own lymphatic system or pain receptors

38. The blood brain barrier is an important defense of the CNS, may be helped by astrocytes and is compromised in MS

39. Multiunit smooth muscles have a single innervation are found in eyes and some large arteries

40. There are more than 600 named skeletal muscles in the human body

41 Most muscles are type 2 (class) levers

42. Gap junctions are found in smooth , cardiac but not skeletal muscles

43 The insertion of the sternocleidomastoid is sternum and clavicle.

44. The stapedius muscles is the smallest skeletal muscle of body and is involved in a defensive reflex to protect the organ of Corti

45. Cardiac muscle is formed by fusion of many, even hundreds of myoblasts

46. The lens of the eye is made of carbohydrates unique to it and is formed during early embryogenesis from the optic placode

47. Intercalated discs consist of desmosomes and gap junctions and are only found in cardiac muscle

48. Cilia are found in paranasal sinuses spinal cord ,trachea , ventricles of brain and fallopian tube

49. The stapes attaches to the round window of the inner ear

50. Calcium binds to tropoponin in sarcomere to cause muscle contraction in skeletal, cardiac but not  smooth muscle

51. The tectorial membrane, hair cells , space of Nuel, Deiter’s cells ,basilar membranes are found in the organ of Corti , which is the organ of hearing

52 Apocrine sweat glands are simple tubular glands that produce a watery fluid that is involved in thermoregulation

53 White blood cells can pass between capillary cells or through their fenestra- this is referred to as diapedesis

54. Dilantin may be used to control brain seizures by slowing the passage of sodium ions and has many side effects.

55. Peripherally- acting Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, like Aricept, have been used to treat the memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease

56. Smooth muscle uses calmodulin in place of troponin for calcium attachment

57. Hemorrhagic  stroke is a more common type and cannot be treated with tPA

58. Beta waves can be seen in stage 3 of sleep and anesthesia

59. The reticular formation has both motor and sensory function and is involved in muscle tone and arousal

60 There are 4 rows of hair cells in the organ of Corti- one inner and three outer and only the inner are sensory

61. The receptors of the saccule and utricle are called the macula and employ contain hair cells which have both stereocilia and kinocilia

62. Meniere’s disease involves an abnormal increase in the endolymph of the membranous labyrinth

63. As many as 50 million people in the world suffer from epilepsy

64 Aged- related damage to the ossicles can result in conductive hearing loss

65. Neisseria, Chlaymdia trachomatis and Oncocerca are all pathogenic organisms that can cause blindness in humans

66. Chlamydia trachomatis can cause conjunctivitis and trachoma and has been implicated in macular degeneration –all diseases of the eye.

67 Loa loa is an eye worm that lives as adults in stratified epithelium of cornea

68. Tetanus is caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and it blocks the inhibitory pathway in the spinal cord by inhibiting release of GABA

69. Botulism toxin is the most potent toxin known , but it has been used to treat muscle twitches, hyperhidrosis, epilepsy, and migraines

70. Fungiform papillae have the most taste buds but , filiform do not have any.  


1. Scala tympani

2. CVO

3. Hyaloid canal

4. Aqueduct of Sylvius

5. titin

6. Arbor vitae

7. cisternae

8. Satellite cells

9. Decussation of pyramids

10 Motor cortex

11.Renshaw cells

12. Substantia nigra

13. Dense bodies

14. interneurons

15. sarcoplasm

16. Septum pellucidum

17. Iliosacral ligament

18. Tensor tympani

19. Canal of Schelmm

20. Endomysium

21 Microvilli

22  Sharpey’s fibers

23. Endoneurium

24 Sympathetic ganglia

25. Corpora quadrigemini


1 Amacrine cells

2. Rods

3. Sciatic nerve

4. Granule cells

5. Nissl substance

6. Fast axonal transport system

7. Ciliary body

8. Aqueous humor

9. otoliths

10. Organ of Corti

11. Cerebrospinal fluid

12. Oligodendrocytes

13. Myelin

14. Glycine in spinal cord

15. Microglia

16. Otoconia

17. Occulomotor nerve]

18. Facial nerve

19. Vestibulcochlear nerve

20. aldosterone

21. Gap junction

22. Orbicularis oris

23. Filium terminale

24.Lateral spinothalamic tract

25. GABA

2.Neurotransmitters of PNS

3. Diseases of muscle


Osteogenesis imperfect, 



Creutzfeld-Jakob disease,


Neisseria meningitis , 

GH dwarfism, rabies,



retrograde amnesia,


myasthenia gravis,

Bell’s palsy,

trigeminal neuralgia,



persistent vegetative state,

post polio syndrome ,


Meniere’s disease.




diabetes  insipidus ,



Pagets ,

anterograde amnesia, 

GH giantism, ,



1. Patient suffers permanently contracted mucles in upper body resulting in respiratory failure

2. Patient presents with a bladder like structure  in  eye, recounts eating pork in Spain recently.

3. Patient can remember past events , but not recent events.

4. Patient  has progressive loss of muscle strength  over many years , shows improvement with neostimine

5.Patent has weak bones that upon histological examination are very disorganized

6. Patient presents with  severe contractions of masseter muscle , and blurred vision, recounts stepping on a nail.

7. Patient has right eyelid droop  as well as some ptosis (drooping) of  right corner of mouth, recently has viral infection.

8. Patient is in prolonged coma with no measurable brain waves

9. Patient presents with excruciating pain in face .

10. Patient presents with loss of function in limbs, had a history of polio in the 1950s.

11. Patient presents with double vision difficulty in breathing and eventually dies form respiratory failure., recently had meal of homemade sausages.

12. Patient presents with excessive drooling, spasms of throat, dementia, and dies.  Has teeth marks arm.

13. Patient presents with repeated bouts of  vertigo, nausea and vomiting, has excessive fluid  in inner ear.

14 Patient has high 25mm Hg pressure upon routine examination by puff test.

15. Patient has roaring noise in ears

16 Patient presents with edema and fatigue.

17 Adult patient has extremely deformed hands and facial features due to abnormally thick bones.

18 Patient urinates 10 times a day and is losing about 10 liters /day of fluid in urine.

19 Patient has elongated eye ball, condition corrected with glasses.

20.Patient has severe headache, rash, fever, and metal confusion and condition is rapidly deteriorating,

21, Young patient has itchy red lines in between fingers after returning from day care

22. Patients exhibits sever lethargy, failure to thrive and dies , upon autopsy brain has a spongiform appearance .

23 Patient presents with periorbital edema , fever muscle after attending pork roast  Spain

24. Child is born with sever mental retardation ,mother was fond of cabbage

25 Disease that Samuel L Jackson (Mr. Glass) has in the movie “Unbreakable”

VIII List the actions(s) of the following muscles

a. Adductor magnus

b. latissimus dorsi

c. vastus lateralis

d. biceps femoris

e. triceps brachii

IX define pick 15

1. Z bar

2. Vitreous humor

3. Ganglion

4. Myelin sheath

5. Node of Ranvier

6. Meniere’s disease

7. Huntington’s chorea

8. Epilepsy

9. Myasthenia gravis

10. Saltatory conduction

11. Accommodation

12 glaucoma

13. Isometric contractions

14. Neuritis

15 Prion

16. Treppe

17. Tetanus

18. substantia innominate

19. Glomerulus

20 Accommodation reflex

21 Near point vision

22 Hyperopia

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