Student Name: ______________________
Talker’s first language (L1): ______________________
- State how well your talker follows the 13 PHONOLOGICAL RULES OF GAE, giving examples.
(58 points = 4 points/rule)
Note: This question has two important parts:
- Address every rule, listed below. No skipping.
- Tell us whether you have evidence or not.
- In each case, if you have evidence that the speaker follows the rule, provide examples from your corpus, using IPA.
- If there is evidence the speaker does NOT follow the rule, include examples of the exceptions and describe where they occur (e.g. “in all cases”, “in syllable initial position”, “in the one case where this rule applies”, etc.). What does the talker do instead?
- If the corpus contains no evidence addressing a rule, just write “No evidence.”
- Voiceless stops become aspirated at the beginning of the word. Voiceless stops also become aspirated when (both) stressed and syllable initial in a word.
- Voiceless stops become unaspirated after /s/ at beginning of syllable.
- Approximants (/ɹ, l, w, j/) become partially devoiced after voiceless aspirated stops ([pʰ, tʰ, kʰ]).
- Stops (oral and nasal) are unreleased before stops.
- Vowels (including r-colored vowels) are preceded by glottal stops at the start of an utterance (i.e., beginning of a word).
- Voiceless stops are preceded by glottal stop after a vowel and at the end of a syllable. Also applies to syllable final voiceless affricates (/ʧ/).
- Voiceless alveolar stops (/t/) become glottal stops before a nasal in the same word.
- Alveolar stops (/t/ or /d/) become a voiced flap between a stressed syllable and an unstressed syllable. (note – trochaic rhythm)
- Nasals become syllabic at the end of a word and after an obstruent (fricatives, stops, affricates). (note – trochaic rhythm)
- Liquids (/l] and /ɹ/) become syllabic at the end of a word and after a consonant. (note – trochaic rhythm)
- Alveolars become dentalized before dentals.
- Laterals become velarized after a vowel and before a consonant or at the end of a word.
- Vowels (including diphthongs) become nasalized before nasals.
B. Provide a brief SUMMARY of your talker’s accent. (40 pts)
Include information about these FIVE areas, addressing how your talker’s native language background contributes to his/her English accent:
1. Vowels (Does the talker have difficulty with any GAE vowel quality? If so, why?)
2. Consonants (Does the talker have difficulty with any GAE consonants? If so, why?)
3. Prosody (Does the speech melody sound like GAE? Are there examples of lexical stress, focus, and sentence level intonation? Any interference from them speaking a tonal language?)
4. Problems with GAE phonological rules (relating to question A, above)
5. Overall strengths and weakness in sounding like a GAE talker.
Be sure to address all five areas. You can either answer this point by point (1 through 5), or in a connected essay in which you include the above information. Good luck!
References (2 points)
Include at least three references on the phonology/phonetics of your talker’s language. Please use these in your essay for question B.
(Note: please provide standard academic citations, not just internet address)
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