1. Define the following terms and explain how they are relevant to driving microbial biomass:
    1. Catabolism
    1. Anabolism
    1. enthalpy
    1. entropy
    1. DG
  • DG is defined by intrinsic properties of a reaction.  What two other factors contribute?  (see lecture slides and page 491 of your text).
  • The phosphorylation of glucose has a DGo’ of +13.8 kJ/mol.  Will this reaction proceed in the forward reaction?  Why or why not?
  • Explain how the concept of “additivity of energy change” is central to the phosphorylation of glucose as it occurs during the first step in glycolysis (EMP pathway).
  • ATP is an energy carrier.  How is energy stored by ATP and what are THREE ways that ATP can transfer energy?
  • What are THREE commonly used electron carriers?   How do they store energy?
  • What is an example of a specific concentration gradient that stores energy which can be used to generate ATP?
  • Fill in the following table describing central metabolic pathways.  For each substrate indicate how carbons they contain.  For each product, indicate how many carbons they contain and how many molecules are produced from 1 molecule of the substrate.
 substrateProduct(s)NET ATP producedNumber and type of electron carriers produced
Glycolysis (EMP)1 Glucose (6C)2 Pyruvate (3C)22 NADH
TCA cycle    
Fermentation (just pick a pathway that produces your favorite fermented product)    
  • Humans only contain the enzymes to digest starch, lactose, and sucrose.  How are humans able to get energy from eating polysaccharides or glycan fibers in fruit, lettuce or tomatoes?
  1.  What are the three pathways involved in glucose catabolism that have been described in prokaryotes?
  1. In the following, indicate which pathways from question 10, are used.
    1. Generates the most energy
    1. Used by enteric bacteria to grow on intestinal mucus
    1. Used to generate substrates for anabolic reactions such as purines needed for DNA or RNA
  1.  In the presence of oxygen, indicate which of the following pathways are necessary for complete oxidation of glucose.  Place the pathways in order used for complete oxidation of glucose. Indicate which, if any, terminal electron acceptor

Pathways: EMP, fermentation, ETS, TCA

Terminal electron acceptors:  O2, nitrate

  1. In the absence of oxygen, some cells perform anaerobic respiration. Which of the above pathways and/or terminal electron acceptors would be necessary?
  1. Distinguish between glyoxylate bypass and gluconeogenesis.  What is the function of both and which pathways do they involve?
  1. Describe two specific positive benefits of specific gut microbiota catabolic pathways which promote human (or other mammal) health.

All papers are written by ENL (US, UK, AUSTRALIA) writers with vast experience in the field. We perform a quality assessment on all orders before submitting them.

Do you have an urgent order?  We have more than enough writers who will ensure that your order is delivered on time. 

We provide plagiarism reports for all our custom written papers. All papers are written from scratch.

24/7 Customer Support

Contact us anytime, any day, via any means if you need any help. You can use the Live Chat, email, or our provided phone number anytime.

We will not disclose the nature of our services or any information you provide to a third party.

Assignment Help Services
Money-Back Guarantee

Get your money back if your paper is not delivered on time or if your instructions are not followed.

We Guarantee the Best Grades
Assignment Help Services