Case Study Essay Question Assignment Instructions


The case study essay questions (CSEQs) will challenge you to utilize the content from each specific module to thoroughly answer a question prompt that you select for each module that a CSEQ is due. This assignment will help you further understand the exercise physiology concepts, learned in this course, as it applies to practical and real world situations. 


You must choose 1 of the case study essay questions and answer the question thoroughly in no less than two full pages and no more than four full pages. Be very specific in your answer. You may utilize the course presentations, lectures, and the textbook as resources, but you do not need to incorporate outside sources.  At least one citation must be included in your assignment based upon the resource that you choose to use.  The are no maximum citations for this assignment, yet if you utilize any additional references from outside the course resources, they must only come from human performance oriented textbooks or scholarly journals from the sports science and human performance field. Current APA style is required and your response must be in paragraph form and double spaced with 12-point, Times New Roman font. Also, remember to include your name at the bottom of the last page.


Powers, S. K., & Howley, T. (2021). Exercise physiology: Theory and application to fitness and performance (11th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9781260237764.

Question Prompts

Case Study Essay Question: Cardiorespriatory System

1) What energy system(s) would the following athletes utilize: a 100m sprinter (who runs a 100m race in 10 seconds flat), an 800m runner (who runs the 800m in two minutes flat), and a 10,000m distance runner (who runs a 10km race in 30 minutes flat). Also, discuss if each athlete might use more than 1 system as well as what system that athlete would predominantly utilize the most. Finally, be specific in describing why each athlete uses their particular energy system(s) (160pts).


2) Identify the 3 main energy processes/cycles that the human body utilizes to produce ATP from catabolizing 1 molecule of glucose. Describe in great detail the “raw products” that go into each cycle as well as the “end product” that comes out of each process. Finally, discuss why it may be better to utilize free fatty acids as a raw source of fuel versus carbohydrates and explain why it is the body’s preference not to use protein as a source of fuel unless it has to do so (160pts).

Case Study Essay Question: Aerobic Capacity

 1) After conducting a maximal aerobic capacity test (via a metabolic cart) on Jordan Smith, your exercise physiology lab discovered that Jordan has a VO2max of 45ml/kg/min. Discuss in great detail all of the factors that could have affected or might have contributed to Jordan VO2max level. Also, if this VO2max test was conducted at altitude, yet Jordan lives at sea level, how might the tests results be different and please explain why (160pts)?


2) Explain what the concept of “autoregulation” is. Discuss the 3 aspects of autoregulation and discuss how a person will physiologically improve their aerobic capacity after several months of cardiovascular training (160pts).

Case Study Essay Question: Athletes

1) Why does a cardiovascular athlete, such as former Tour de France Champion Chris Froome, have to be aware of the concept of cardiovascular drift? Explain in great detail to this athlete what cardiovascular drift is and also identify the factors that will affect his cardiovascular drift during a long cycling training ride (160pts).


2)Thermoville Heat, a new environmental exercise physiology center, has just contacted you for a “consultation.” They mentioned that many individuals (i.e. fans) who attended the “very windy and cold” Virginia High School State Football Championships complained of being extremely cold last year. The Thermoville Heat people believe that these football fans must have been “losing heat.” Thus, explain all four ways that the human body can/loe heat and choose three of the ways of losing heat and explain how they apply to the fans at the cold and windy football. Remember to be very thorough in your explanations (160pts).


3) Tommy and Jimmy Thimble are fraternal twins. Tommy is a shot putter (i.e., a power athlete) while Jimmy is a marathoner. They hear you are a muscle guru and would like to know how their muscles (i.e. muscle fiber types) and energy systems adapted differently to their specific training. Explain, in detail, all possible factors associated with their question. Also, justify to whom the “anaerobic glycolysis system” is most important (160pts).


4) Tommy and Jimmy’s dad, Perry, doesn’t believe you are a muscle guru and asked if you could explain the process of a muscle contraction from efferent neuron stimulation/activation to relaxation. You must identify all microstructures that comprise a muscle as a whole and are associated with the excitation/contraction coupling phase as well as describing their importance. Do not forget to indicate what the “powerstroke” and the “sliding filament theory” are, plus note their significance (160pts).


5) Perry (Tommy and Jimmy’s father) told his brother Tyson, who is a physicist, about you. Tyson would like to know how “contractile speed” relates to neurons and muscle fiber type as well as what the relationship is with muscle fiber types, exercise intensity, and duration. Also, Tyson wants you to tell him what actually determines the muscle fiber type and how the body determines which fiber type will be recruited. Finally, Tyson asks what the relationship is between motor unit size, numbers recruited, and force production. Answer all of Tyson’s thought provoking questions (160pts).

Case Study Essay Question: Movement

1) Tommy and Jimmy’s cousins Sara and Tanya are identical twins. Sara and Tanya have never worked out before, and more specifically, have never engaged in a resistance/weight training program, but they would like to start. Sara is going to train with Tommy (the power/strength athlete) while Tanya will train with Jimmy (the endurance athlete). What type of adaptations should the girls expect in the first 6 to 8 weeks and how would you explain, in detail, those adaptations? Secondly, what specific type of resistance training (i.e., muscular strength, power, muscular endurance, etc.) should Sara and Tanya utilize and how would they accomplish this (think variations of load/weight, intensity, rest, sets, etc.). Finally, describe what adaptations will occur to Sara and Tanya after 8–12 weeks of resistance training (160pts)?


2) After working out with Tommy, Sara comes to you and complains of being very sore for the last 24 to 72 hours. Explain to Sara what the soreness that she is specifically experiencing is while also indicating to her how this soreness occurred structurally and what the causes of soreness are. Sara, at first, thought her soreness was due to hyperplasia of the muscle fibers, but you must explain to her why this did not happen to her. Also, identify what Sara could do to decrease the severity of this soreness from happening again (160pts).


3) You are teaching a college undergraduate exercise physiology class. One of your students, Bob Parker just started a resistance training program. He is surprised at his increase in strength (in the first 6 weeks), but he has not increased his muscle size. He would like to know how this is possible. Then, 3 months later, Bob feels stronger, but notices that his muscles have not sufficiently grown larger, and he wonders how he has gotten somewhat stronger without sufficient muscle growth. Explain to Bob what exactly is going on and why his “genetics,” training, and other related variables might be hindering his size development (160pts).


4) Dean Weakman has been competing in “Strongman Competitions” throughout the majority of his early 20s and 30s. He has always noticed that with heavy strength and power training, he gets stronger and improves his performance. However, Dean has always wondered specifically how his body has adapted to the challenges of his severe anaerobic training. Therefore, specifically explain to Dean what his general anaerobic adaptations (identify at least 7 to 8) have been and thoroughly describe how they have led to his increased performance abilities (160pts).


5) Bob Parker is stretching and causes the muscle spindle to activate. What specifically is the muscle spindle and why did it “engage in activity”? After stretching, Bob decides to attempt to impress his baby brother, Tony, as he tries to biceps curl 75lbs. What organ will be activated that may stop Bob from causing damage to both his biceps and the tendon. Plus, why is this proprioceptor so important and discuss the process as to how this organ is going to potentially save “Bob’s muscle” and hopefully stop him from hurting himself in front of Tony. Finally, Tony throws his rattle at Bob and it hits him in the face. Then, Tony throws his bottle at Bob, but Bob catches it and unexpectedly juggles it with the rattle (that he picked up just prior to the bottle being thrown at him). Then, Bob almost drops them both before successfully catching them both. Explain how the brainstem and spinal cord play a role in Bob first catching the bottle as well as his unexpected juggling and “re-catching act” (160pts).

Case Study Essay Question: Aging

1) Mickey and Minnie Towns are fraternal twins who weigh 130lbs each. Neither of them has ever trained before and both have extremely sedentary jobs. Both individuals have asked you to prescribe to them a “muscular strength” training program that will also include 3 days per week of running for 30 min (each time). Describe to Mickey and Minnie why, despite engaging in the exact same training program, their training outcomes/results (after 6 months) will be different (for example: Mickey will be able to Bench Press and Leg Press more weight while also being able to complete a 5km race in a quicker time vs. Minnie). Make sure to specifically identify what their physiological differences and adaptations will be (160pts).


2) Nash Fountain used to be the world Decathlon (the best all-around Track & Field Athlete) champion when he was 25 years old. Now, 30 years later, he comes to you and complains of feeling like he has less power, strength, speed, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscle-mass despite the fact that he still weighs 150lbs like he did when he was 25 years old. Explain to Nash, in great detail, what contributing factors are associated with why he now feels the way that he does at the “ripe-old-age” of 55 years old (160bts).


3) Joe and Sam Bowie are identical twins. Joe used to be a collegiate athlete (soccer player), but after receiving his degree, Joe became very sedentary. Sam, like Joe, was a collegiate athlete (X-Country Runner) and has consistently stayed active with a cardiorespiratory fitness program. Sam trains to stay in shape and be healthy, but does not compete anymore. Now, both gentlemen are 50 years of age and Sam asks Joe to join him in participating in a Weight Training Program (with heavy weight, low reps, and moderate sets) for the first time in their lives. Explain what they both may feel in the first 6 to 8 weeks, followed by what changes may occur in the next 8–12 weeks. Also, identify how they may physiologically respond differently to their new weight training program (160pts).

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