True/False: Circle the best response (2 points each for a total of 40 points).

True     False   1. The presidential election of 1968 saw a three-way race between

                              Richard Nixon, Hubert Humphrey, and independent candidate

                              George Wallace, the governor of Mississippi.

True     False   2. The Arab oil embargo, was a temporary cessation

                              of oil shipments from the Middle East to the United States and

                              the Netherlands, imposed by oil-producing Arab countries in

                             October 1973 in retaliation for U.S. and Dutch support

                             of Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

True     False   3. In his speech at the foot of the Lincoln Memorial, Dr. Martin Luther

                                King told Americans that one day white men and black men

                             would join hands and sing “Free at Last. . .Free at Last. . . Thank

                             God Almighty! We’re free at last.”

True     False   4. The Watergate scandal began early in the morning of June

                         17, 1972, when several burglars were arrested in the office

                         of the Democratic National Committee, located in the

                         Watergate complex of buildings in Washington, D.C. This

                         was no ordinary robbery: The prowlers were connected to

                         President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they

                         had been caught wiretapping phones and stealing


True     False   5. Harvey Milk, one of the nation’s few openly gay city

                         supervisor (San Francisco) spearheading a bill to ban

                         discrimination in employment, housing, and public

                         accommodations based on sexual orientation, one of the

                         nation’s strongest gay-rights measures of the 1970s.

True     False   6. In the spring of 1975, the North Vietnamese army conquered all

                              of South Vietnam, and the following year North and South were

                              formally united in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

True     False   7. During Ford’s presidency, both inflation and unemployment rose

                              to heights not seen in the post-World War II years. The rapid

                              growth of inflation, attributable to macro-economic issues as

                              well as to the escalation in federal outlays since 1965 and was

                              exacerbated by the rising price of oil.

True     False   8. In his inaugural address as the Governor of Georgia in 1971,

                              Jimmy Carter announced that “the time for

                              racial discrimination is over” and proceeded to open Georgia’s

                              government offices to blacks—and to women.

True     False   9. A onetime movie star and president of the Screen Actors Guild

                              (1947–1952), Ronald Reagan was originally a Democrat but

                              turned to the Republican Party and was elected to the first of

                              two terms as governor of California in 1966.

True     False   10. Reagan came to the presidency in 1981 with a straightforward

                                and well-articulated domestic agenda. He promised to cut taxes,

                                curb government spending, provide federal dollars to combat

                                AIDS, mandate civil rights for all Americans including

                                immigrants, and balance the federal budget or at least reduce

                                the deficit.

True     False   11. By 1983 AIDS became known as a “gay disease,” which led many

                                Americans to conclude it afflicted a minority of the population.

                                A smaller number of Americans who equated homosexuality

                                with deviancy saw AIDS as a form of divine or natural


True     False   12. Founded in 1979 by Jerry Falwell, an influential Baptist minister

                               and televangelist, the Moral Majority joined with other political

                               conservatives to promote the restoration of traditional moral

                               values in American society. Falwell and his followers played a

                               significant role in the election of Ronald Reagan to the

                               presidency in 1980, and in following years sought to focus

                               national attention on the controversial topics of abortion, gay

                               rights, pornography, the exclusion of prayer from public schools,

                               and the Equal Rights Amendment.

True     False   13. In his inaugural address, George H. W. Bush spoke about the

                                plight of homelessness, crime, and drug addiction. He

                                advocated volunteerism and community involvement, pledging

                                to support “a thousand points of light, of all the community

                                organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation,

                                doing good.”

True     False   14. The Persian Gulf War helped restore the morale of the U.S.

                                military and dampened memories of the Vietnam War. It also

                                showed the possibility of what Bush referred to as the “New

                                World Order,” breaking down Cold War alliances and using

                                peaceful nations to stand united against rogue states.

True     False   15. The “Contract with America” proposed by President Bill Clinton

                                outlined legislation to be enacted by the House of

                                Representatives within the first 100 days of the 104th Congress

                                (1995–96). Among the proposals were tax cuts, a permanent

                                line-item veto, measures to reduce crime and provide middle-

                                class tax relief, and constitutional amendments requiring term

                                limits and a balanced budget, which was not forthcoming.

True     False   16. Despite George W. Bush’s best intentions, his administration

                                encountered its share of challenges: the disputed 2000

                                presidential election, which initially undermined its political

                                legitimacy; the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which

                                recast its focus and priorities, the natural disaster of Hurricane

                                Katrina in 2005; and finally, the 2008 financial crisis at the end

                                of Bush’s tenure.

True     False   17. Bush II believed that faith-based organizations, charities, and

                                community groups could respond to people’s needs more

                                effectively than the Democratic led government.

True     False   18. The No Child Left Behind Act expanded federal funding for

                                 education, allowed more freedom for localities to spend federal

                                 funds, set federal standards for school achievement, and

                                 encouraged more freedom of choice between private and  

                                 public schools.

True     False   19. Obama wanted to do more as president than put out the

                                economic fire he inherited on taking office. He also sought to

                                enact a major reform of the nation’s health care system. Health

                                care reform had been a leading Republican Party goal since the

                                presidency of Harry S. Truman.

True     False   20. Just 75 years ago, and sometimes even more recently, women

                                in much of the advanced industrial world, including the United

                                States, Europe, and Australia, did not have equal pay legislation,

                                access to equal credit, no-fault divorce, access to abortion,

                                access to birth control, equal access to higher education

Listing (1 point each for a total of 16 points)

1. Name five pandemics that has influenced American history since 1900.






2. Identify five television shows of the 1950s and1960s presenting a standardized

    version of the white middle-class suburban family.






3. The 1950s saw a surge of toys in the market, as post war indulgence changed the way that people spent. Identify six toys that affected the Baby Boomers.

  1.                                                                 e.
  •                                                                 f.



Multiple Choice (Two points each for a total of 44 points). Circle the best response.

1.  When taking office in 1961, President John Kennedy tried to stimulate

        the sluggish economy through:

        A.  a massive foreign-aid program.

        B.  an increase in the military budget.

        C.  reducing expenditures in the space program.

        D.  a tax cut for the middle class.

        E.  stimulus packages for manufacturers and banks.

2. John Kennedy moved slowly in the area of racial justice because he:

        A.  did not support civil rights.

        B.  needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic

              and social legislation.

        C.  had not pledged any action in this area during his campaign.

        D.  believed that help in this area must come from the states, not the

              federal government.

        E.  planned to pass this issue on to the next president.

3.  The common use of poll taxes to inhibit black voters in the South was

      outlawed by the:

        A.  Civil Rights Act of 1964.

        B.  14th Amendment.

        C.  War on Poverty.

        D.  Voting Rights Act of 1965.

        E.  Brown Case in 1954. 

4.  As president, Lyndon Johnson called his package of domestic reform:

        A.  the Great Society. 

        B.  the New Frontier.

        C.  the Old Deal Society.

        D.  the Great Crusade.

        E.  a Damn Aggravation.

5.  The most serious blow to Johnson’s Vietnam policy was:

        A.  the bombing of Cambodia and Laos .

        B.  the invasion into Thailand.

        C.  when J. Edgar Hoover was commissioned by Congress to investigate

              the on-going war.

        D.  the Tet Offensive of 1968 and the investigation into the war by

              CBS News led by Walter Cronkite.   

        E.  they all were blows of Johnson’s Vietnam policy.

6.  Substantial opposition to America’s commitment to Vietnam between

        1965 and 1968 came from:

        A.  America’s European allies.                                                  B.  liberal congressional members.

        C.  college students.                            D.  the American public.

        E.  all of the above began to protest the war in Vietnam.

7.  What really fueled the growth of the American economy after World

        War 2 to the early 1970s was:

        A.  low-cost energy.

        B.  the space programs.

        C.  the interstate highway system.

        D.  foreign trade alliances.

        E.  the expansion of manufacturing jobs.

8.  The high inflation rate of the 1970s stemmed primarily from:     

        A.  the Middle East oil embargo.

        B.  high taxes.

        C.  deregulation policies to remove Roosevelt era regulations.

        D.  spending on social-welfare programs and the Vietnam War.

        E   massive investment and revitalization of major industry.

9.  During the Vietnam War, the United States lost:

        A.  respect in the eyes of foreigners.

        B.  confidence in its military prowess.

        C.  economic power.

        D.  respect from the oil producing nations.

        E.  all of the above.

10.  President Jimmy Carter’s most spectacular foreign-policy achievement

        was the:

        A.  Panama Canal Treaty.

        B.  Helsinki Accords.

        C.  Camp David Accords.

        D.  speech he gave at the opening of the Moscow Olympic Games.

        E.  Iranian Crisis.

11.  The “new right” activist that helped to elect Ronald Reagan was

       spearheaded by:

         A.  fiscal conservatives influenced by Richard Nixon.

         B.  moral minded evangelical Christians.

         C.  liberal Midwesterners.

         D.  the Radical Republicans.

         E.  the arrival of fundamental Muslims during the 1980s.

12.  Ronald Reagan’s major goal as president was to:

         A.  cut military spending.

         B.  continue the antiquated New Deal policies of FDR.

         C.  reduce the size of the federal government and dismantle

               expanding welfare programs.

         D.  expand the federal budget for education and child welfare.

         E.  end the Truman Doctrine.

13. The 2000 presidential election was decided when:

      A. The Florida recount concluded that George W. Bush had received

           863 more votes.

      B. The Supreme Court ruled that the automatic recount had to cease


      C. Al Gore conceded privately to George W. Bush.

      D. A recalculation of electoral college votes from Pennsylvania tipped

           the scale.

14. What was the primary rationale used to justify the Iraq War?

       A. The expansion of democracy and alleviation of human rights abuses.

       B. The defeat of al-Qaeda cells.

       C. Saddam Hussein’s alleged possession of weapons of mass


      D. Reduction of global gas prices.

15. Which of the following instigated the First Gulf War, also known as

       Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm?

       A. This was not a war as Congress never authorized military action.

       B. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.

       C. Soaring gas prices.

       D. All of the above.

16. Why was the federal government slow to respond to the AIDS crisis?

       A. Concerns about the deficit discouraged new research spending.

       B. The disease was portrayed as an international problem, not an

            American problem.

       C. The issue disproportionately affected gay Americans, a marginalized


       D. The surgeon general opposed allocating research funding, believing

             that it would be better used to fight cancer.

17. Which leader of the Soviet Union advocated the projects of glasnost and


       A. Leonid Brezhnev.

       B. Yuri Andropov.

       C. Konstantin Chernenko.

       D. Mikhail Gorbachev.

18. The Kerner Commission explained urban riots as the result of which of

       the following:

       A. Poor parenting by African Americans.

       B. The provocation of racist urban police departments.

       C. Black frustration with the hopelessness of urban poverty.

       D. Anger over the failures of the Civil Rights Movement.

19.What initially sparked the 1973 energy crisis?

      A. OPEC’s embargo of oil exports to the United States in retaliation for

           American intervention in the Middle East.

      B. Price manipulation by American oil companies.

      C. Environmental legislation that eliminated old coal-fired power plants.

      D. Public panic over the Watergate scandal.

20. What was the primary guiding principle of Carter’s foreign policy

       during his early years in office?

       A. Realpolitik.

       B. Human rights.

       C. Domino Theory.

       D. Isolationism.

21. Which of the following resulted from American commitments to free


      A. Rising prices on international goods.

      B. Increased diplomatic conflict with other wealthy nations.

      C. Increased dominance of American exports.

      D. The relocation of American manufacturing oversees.

22. The Stonewall incident that catalyzed the gay rights movement occurred


       A. A prominent gay politician was murdered in San Francisco.

       B. A gay teenager was tortured and murdered in the Midwest.

       C. Bar patrons in New York City protested a police raid.

       D. Media leaders began to focus on the experience of gay and lesbian


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